A framework for next-gen BRICS

A framework for next-gen BRICS

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Home to some of the oldest civilisations of the world, the BRICS nations were early adopters of technology as well. Post World War-II, BRICS have been building their geospatial infrastructure progressively — be it space based earth observation satellites, navigation systems or augmenting national mapping capabilities.

Towards the end of 20th century and early 21st century, these emerging nations have stepped up their geospatial investments by launching path-breaking initiatives and creating forward looking policies to take their economies to the next level. Here’s a peek into the geospatial infrastructure of BRICS nations.

EARTH OBSERVATION

India

BRICS,Geospatial Infrastructure,Earth Observation, Satellite Navigation,Geodetic Reference Systems,NSDI,SDI

India

Satellite

Sensors

Spatial

Resolution (m)

Resourcesat-1

AWiFS/LISS-III /PAN/LISS-IV

56/23/5/5

Cartosat-1

PAN doublet

2.5

Cartosat-2

PAN

0.8

Cartosat-2A

PAN

<1

Cartosat-2B

PAN

<1

Resourcesat-2

LISS-IV/LISS-III/AWiFS

5.8/23/56

China

Satellite

Sensors

Spatial
Resolution (m)

CBERS-2

CCD/WFI/IRMSS

20/258/80

ZY-3-01

CCD

2.5

HJ1-1A

CCD/Hyperspectral

30/100

HJ-1B

CCD/Infrared multispectral

30/150

Brazil

Satellite

Sensors

Spatial Resolution (m)

CBERS-2

CCD/WFI/IRMSS

20/258/80

MAPSAR

With German Collaboration. Scheduled to be launched in 2015

Amazonia-1

Indigenous EO satellite. Scheduled to be launched in 2014

Russia

Satellite

Sensors

Spatial
Resolution (m)

Canopus-V

PAN/Multispectral

2.1/10.5

Monitor-E

PAN/Multispectral

8/20-40

Resurs-DK No.1

PAN/Multispectral

1/1.5-2

Resurs-P No.1

PAN/Multispectral

3-4/12-60

 

System

Coverage

Expected positional accuracy

Total satellites/functional satellites in orbit

Expected year of operationalisation/completion

Russia

GLONASS

Global

~2.5 m

31/24

Operational

India

IRNSS

Regional (up to 1,500km)

<10m

7/1

2015-16

China

Beidou

Global

<10m

35/13

2020

Brazil

No indigenous system. Brazil hosts first overseas GLONASS ground station for differential correction & monitoring

South Africa

No indigenous system.

GEODETIC REFERENCE SYSTEMS

India

  • System: Everest Ellipsoid 
  • Organisation: Survey of India 
  • Coverage: Regional 
  • Description: Named after Sir George Everest, the system was derived in 1830 and since then it has been used as basis for all types of control surveys. It is inconsistent and inadequate for present needs. Accuracy of the network is only of the 1st order or less

Russia

  • System: National Reference Systems of the Russian Federation (PZ-90.11)
  • Organisation: Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation
  • Coverage: Global (consistent with ITRF)
  • Description: Established in 2012, PZ-90.11 is an improvised version of earlier systems – PZ-90.02 and PZ-90. It provides a relative positional accuracy of 0.05m and angular accuracy of 0.001 angular seconds.

China

  • System: China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000 (CGCS 2000)
  • Organisation: National Bureau of Surveying and Geo-information (NASG)
  • Coverage: Global (consistent with ITRF)
  • Description: China Geodetic Coordinate System 2000 (CGCS 2000) is an earth-centered, earth-fixed terrestrial reference system and geodetic datum. CGCS 2000 is the standard Chinese geodetic reference system for geospatia information and BeiDou/COMPASS. The reference frame of CGCS 2000 is CTRF 2000, which is maintained by 28 CORS stations and more than 2,500 GPS stations.

South Africa

  • System: Trignet
  • Organisation: Chief Directorate: Surveys and Mapping (CDSM) of the Department of Land Affairs (DRDLR)
  • Coverage: Regional
  • Description: TrigNet is a network of permanent continuously operating GNSS base stations distributed throughout South Africa at approximately 100km to 300km spacing. All stations record 1 second epoch data on both GPS frequencies (L1 and L2) via geodetic standard choke ring antennas. TrigNet provides DGPS coverage over the entire country; RTK positioning in much of the country; and an RTK network in two principal urban areas based on NTRIP for the delivery of data.

 

NATIONAL MAPPING & SDI

Russia

• The Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography, Rostreestr, was established in 2009 as a result of reorganisation and merging of the Federal Registration Service, the Federal Agency for Real Estate Cadastre and the Federal Agency for Cartography.

• Currently, Rostreestr makes maps available at 1:100,000 and 1:50,000 for the whole country. Large scale maps are available at 1:10,000 scale for 400 towns. It carries out resurvey and produces digital maps once in three years.

• The geoportal hosts more than 500,000 open-for-all maps. Rostreestr is currently undertaking the country-wide cadastral mapping project, bringing together all the 5000 different databases containing spatial data and semantic data, developing new systems for the entire Russian Federation, and centralising business processes.

Russian Spatial Data Infrastructure

• Russia has big plans for NSDI development. The government will adopt a new law this year to establish a framework and guidelines for the establishment of NSDI.

• The NSDI geoportal is ready with the base layer by the Federal Service and other layers including transportation, land use, land resources, regional development etc by local and regional governments. Ahead of the formulation of NSDI, government organisations have already started using the data and creating applications with the same.

 

Brazil

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) is responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information. It undertakes various national censuses including population census and agricultural census every 10 years.

IBGE provides a series of general, continuous, homogeneous and connected maps in the standard scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:250,000, 1:100,000, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000.

IBGE’s cartographic products include index map; cartographic bases at several scales; cartographic planning and preparation for printing of various maps. It provides several thematic maps including land use maps, geology, geomorphology, pedology, vegetation, hydrogeological and hydrochemical maps, all released in a supporting cartographic base for the whole country at a level of detail compatible with 1:250,000 scale.

Brazilian Spatial Data Infrastructure (INDE)

Legally established by presidential decree in November 27, 2008; launched in April 2010.

• Implemented under the supervision of CONCAR, the Brazilian National Committee of Cartography. IBGE is the execution institution.

• The SIG Brasil geoportal provides access to geospatial data, metadata and services

• 110 members, representing 26 organisations in Brazil; 22-federal, 3-state secretariats, 1-university.

• Data is free to any registered user.

 

China

The National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (NASG) is the central authority responsible for surveying, mapping and geoinformation in China. NASG has completed 1:4,000,000 topographic database; 1:1,000,000 topographic database and DEM database; 1:250,000 topographic database, DEM database and geographic name database; 1:10,000 DEM database and ortho-image database of 7 major river valleys; 1:50,000 digital raster graphic database, DEM database, geographic name database, land cover database and TM satellite image database. Each province is establishing 1:10,000 topographic database, DEM database, ortho-image database, digital raster graphic database. By the end of 2011, 1:50,000 topographic maps have covered the entire land territory of China and 80% have been updated.

China National Spatial Data Infrastructure

• National Geospatial Information Coordinating Council coordinates NSDI development and coordinates with the 21 ministerial departments.

• The National Fundamental Geographic Information System stores and manages basic geographic data at multiple scales and themes.

• Geospatial framework for digital city projects is part of NSDI and so far it has been implemented in more than 270 prefecture-level cities and more than 40 county-level cities.

• Map World (www.tianditu.cn) is the public geoinformation service platform. Over 1000 public or commercial applications have been developed on the basis of the Map World website.

 

South Africa

The National Geospatial Information (NGI) is mandated to regulate all land survey activities, provide the necessary control infrastructure and to maintain the SDI. It is mandated to provide data at 1:50,000 scale or equivalent for all topographical information, elevation data, hydrography, transportation, urban centres, etc. NGI is responsible for aerial photography and since 2008, NGI is using digital cameras for flying one third of the country every year, with a three-year refresh cycle. NGI has been producing orthophoto maps at 1:10,000 scale. As user requirement for orthophoto maps has been replaced by orthimagery, all aerial photos are now rectified to orthoimagery.

South African Spatial Data Infrastructure

• NSDI came into being with the Spatial Data Infrastructure Act 2003.

• SDI Act provides for data sharing, data discovery, avoiding duplication of data collection, reporting of quality issues, safeguarding of geospatial information, data custodians (with responsibilities)

• Currently, detail policies being formulated.

• Developing strategy and strategic objectives in lieu of a NSDI national policy framework.

• Geoportal hosts electronic metadata catalogue. Revised geoportal
to be operational early 2014

 

India

Established in 1767, Survey of India (SoI) is the oldest scientific establishment of the Government of India.

It is responsible for all topographic control, surveys and mapping in India. SoI makes maps available at 1:250,000; 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 scales. Currently, Survey of India is working on producing maps at 1:10,000 scale for the whole country. It is spearheading the ambitious $0.7-bn National GIS project, which envisages a GIS-based decision support system on a well-founded GIS-ready data that is maintained and seamlessly available for the whole nation.

National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)

• Idea mooted in 2000, NSDI strategy adopted in 2001.

• 17 nodal agencies, who are major contributors, are affiliated to NSDI.

• India geoportal launched in December 2008. With this launch, NSDI has become the first government agency to host OGC compliant metadata on the Web.

• NSDI also guiding the development of SDIs in
various states.