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20 COVER STORY Integration and convergence are two very important processes for the successful implementation of geospatial systems, suggests Prof. Arup Dasgupta, Managing Editor, Geospatial World. Read on to gather more… Data Talk and Geospatial Convergence G eospatial technology, as we know today, has evolved from many dif- ferent sources. Surveying is the core activity in geospatial data acquisition, which has been augmented by many new technol- Geospatial World • May • 2015 ogies as they have evolved. Simple levels have given way to theodo- lites to EDMs and Total Stations to Differential GPS. Geographical In- formation Systems, GIS, grew out of the efforts of the Harvard Labora- tory for Computer Graphics which sought to apply digital techniques to the analogue art of cartography. Initially, the efforts were to just automate cartography, but soon, it became apparent that a digital map and database make a versatile combination for city planning, and