US: John Kerekes, a scientist at Rochester Institute of Technology, won a three-year, USD 561,130 grant from NASA to help the space agency’s scientists better interpret remotely sensed data collected by LiDAR. “The ICESat-2 science team wants to be able to measure annual changes in ice-sheet thickness to within a few millimetres, averaged over the entire ice sheet,” said Kerekes.
It is pertinent to mention here that future NASA missions, such as the upcoming Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, will use LiDAR devices. Slated for launch in 2016, ICESat-2 will measure ice-surface topography and assess changes to Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and sea ice.
Monitoring glaciers and ice sheets is complicated work. They move and change shape. They melt. The LiDAR technology measures altitude by shooting pulses of laser light, or photons, at a target. The light pulses reach the surface and bounce back to the sensor. The detector measures the distance travelled and forms an image of the shape pulse by pulse. The processed data creates three-dimensional renderings or digital elevation maps that scientists can use to measure changes in the polar ice.
Kerekes’ team will give LiDAR a trial run in a simulated arctic environment well before NASA launches the technology on its future mission. They will use the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation tool, developed at RIT, to model the light-scattering radiometric behaviour of the earth and its atmosphere in a computer-coded world of glaciers and icebergs orbited by a simulated ICESat-2.
“DIRSIG is capable of simulating scenes that reflect the physics and radiometry found in the real world as compared to simulations that were designed for a movie, where it doesn’t have to have the right physical units; it just has to look good,” Kerekes explained.
Input from geophysicist Beata Csatho, associate professor of geology at University at Buffalo, will provide essential details to the mini-Arctic world. Her expertise in polar topics with a remote-sensing perspective will layer the scenes with realistic physical details of ice sheets and glaciers and lend relevance to testing the laser sensor’s signal processing methods via computer software. Csatho, who is also the leader of the NASA ICESat-2 Science Definition Team, understands the challenges of interpreting data collected from airplanes and satellites.
“Ice sheets and glaciers play a critical role in the Earth’s climate system and they are major contributors to global sea level rise,” Csatho said. “Ice sheets and outlet glaciers often change rapidly exhibiting a complex pattern, controlled by interactions with climate, oceanographic and geological processes. Simulations will allow us to develop and test algorithms to process ICESat-2 data for mapping the surface as accurately as possible, even in adverse conditions such when blowing snow or ice fog restrict the visibility or the LiDAR beam is reflected from a surface covered by melting snow or large snow crystals.”
“It’s a complementary collaboration,” Kerekes added. “We’re working on modelling the instrument—how it works; how the light interacts with the surface. The UB team is providing an understanding of how we should construct a surface model and what are the most important issues in terms of the NASA science community.”