Traffic Jams Analysis Using: Case study Khartoum, Sudan

Traffic Jams Analysis Using: Case study Khartoum, Sudan

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Nafisa Khider Mohamed Elkajam
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang
Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]

Noordin Ahmad
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang
Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]

Hassan Saad Mohammed Hilmi
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang
Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]

Alzaiem Alazhari
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang
Selangor, Malaysia

Babikir Ahmed Mobarak
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang
Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]

ABSTRACT
Transportation is one of the most important components of the physical and economic development of a country. It gets a lot of affective all around the world and it had been planned and developed to cope with the civil development. Daily the number of vehicles on the roads is steadily increasing where as the land available for building new road are limited. The road is designed on the basis of the traffic volume prediction. Since the influence factors of the traffic volume prediction are indeterminate it leads to great discrepancy between traffic prediction and the actual number of people. This paper intend to present a study in the central of Khartoum – capital of the Sudan, were most of the public services are found, with bad traffic jam especially during the day time. Using the Geographic Information System to analyze the data improvement to the routing and instituting policies will minimize the traffic jams in Khartoum state.

1. INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIBTION OF THE STUDAY AREA
The transportation with its branches: the public and the private sectors, is one of the most important component of the development and the economy of the country. For this importance, it get a lot of concern all around the world and it had been developed and updated to cope with the rural and civil development.

Khartoum state is the most developed state in SUDAN and it is the capital of the country. It has three main cities (Omdurman, Khartoum North and Khartoum). With the most updated technologies applied in Khartoum, it is attractive for the public and most of the peoples from other states prefer to live in it, which makes a lot of city extensions. This result in deterioration in the services and the big effect appear in the transportation sector which affect all the social and cultural activities. Also the increases in the population with 15.5% as stated in last population statistics in 2003 made a tremendous need for transportation services which are:-

  1. More demand for both the private and public transportation
  2. Increase the commercial and industrial activities in the state of Khartoum, and
  3. The need for more education, all good schools and universities are placed in Khartoum, which leads to increase in the number of schools, universities and other collogues. All these aspects leads to bad traffic jam especially during the day time.

Also there are so many reasons for the traffic jam which are:-

  1. The main air port is located in Khartoum which makes it as a collection point for the people from other states.
  2. The roads still the old ones; it is not updated to meet the huge increase in the number of vehicles.
  3. Lack of fly over and very rare entrance and exits
  4. Lack of parking areas in the big buildings which lead the drivers to park in the roads, and
  5. The location of the main public transportation stations in the center of the state.


Figure (1)Khartoum (capital of the SUDAN)


Figure (2)Khartoum state (consist of three main cities).

2. METERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
GIS software system which specialized to fit certain types of decision making in this study is ARCGIS version 9 which used in a wide number of applications. The GIS developers are often encouraged to adopt a data-centered approach. So the data about roads situation (traffic flow) was carried out including a survey of the different jam’s points and collected the numbers and types of private cars. Also we obtained the map of the study area. In next step the map and the data interred in the software to produce the database which help in the quires.


Figure (3) The spatial data of the traffic jams
(Include the points, roads and the coordinates)


Figure (4) The attributes data of the traffic jams
(Include the numbers of the vehicles, types and the time)

To make the analysis of this data we divide the time during the moving day to intervals. Start by stopping the lorry at the first interval time from 6 to 9 Am we can decries the traffic jam between 8.5% in the entire point to Khartoum and near to its centre, to 1.7% far from the centre.

Producing new type of transportation like using the train from Omdurman to Khartoum will decrease the jam by 50% spatially from those home come from Omdurman and want to go not to Khartoum centre.

Most of the public services are found in central of Khartoum, this cause high population intensity. By replacing most of these public services to the Khartoum North or Omdurman also will decrease this high population intensity of cars.

3. CONCLUTION
Traffic condition in Sudan has detonated rapidly in the recent years especially in the centre of Khartoum. To solve this problem by building new roads or by increase the current roads network is difficult, therefore, using new transportation by helping of the Sudan facility like the Neil River to make communication between the three cities or by using policy to reduce the privet cars. And for the future of the open area first the policy makers should design their roads, needs and then take other public services to make their policy and at the last let the housing builder to do their job.

REFRENCES

  1. Muna Muhallab Taha, Stockholm 2001, The Potential Role of GIS in the Development and Applications of Urban Indicators, Division of Land and Water Resources, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),Stockholm, Sweden.
  2. Papacostas, C.S 1990, Fundamental of transportation engineering, Prentice Hall of India private limited New Ddlhi-110001.
  3. Tor Bernhardsen, Asplan Viak, Arendal, Norway, TGeographic Information Systems, an Introduction, Second Edition, May 1992.
  4. Yeh, A. 1999,Urban planning and GIS, in longely, P., M. Goodchild, D. Maguire, and D. Rhind(eds.) 1999, Geographical Information System, Vol.2, John Wiley&Sons, inc., New York,PP.877-888.