Israel occupied Gaza from Egypt (Egypt borders Gaza on the west) during the 1967 war between the two countries. The Gaza Strip is 146 square miles, and has a population of about 1.6 million, largely Palestinians. In the late 20th century, Israel withdrew from Gaza in accordance with the Oslo Accords which called for Palestinian administration of the Gaza strip. However, things took an ugly turn when Hamas won elections in 2006. Hamas is a militant group and doesn’t recognise Israel as a separate state. Since its inception in 1987, it has waged a war against Israel. The two share a deep distrust for each other. The ongoing Israel-Gaza war is a result of this mistrust between the two.
Israel accuses Hamas of kidnapping and killing its three students in June this year, but Hamas has denied these accusations. However, since then, the two have resorted to airstrikes and artillery exchanges, which have resulted in the death of hundreds of civilians. Even though United Nations has called for a ceasefire, it appears unlikely as of now.