Spinfo HealthMap – A Health GIS Application

Spinfo HealthMap – A Health GIS Application

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Shankar. K. N, Sathish Selvakumar
Spatial Data Pvt. Ltd. 747, Sri Krishna Temple Road, Indiranagar, 1st Stage, Bangalore – 560038
E-Mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Phone: 080-5254306, 080-5253708, Tele-Fax – 080-5213125

Objective
The objective of the project was to implement a custom GIS application which would be an interactive spatial analysis tool enabling the Health Officer to perform re-districting, re-locating health jurisdictions for effective utilization of health infrastructure. Such an automated facility to generate proposals at the district level and review at the State level were lacking as a system. In a state-wide implementation of Health Information System, sharing health related information with other districts was one of the primary goals, so that consistent and current data is available with the districts. To effectively monitor Disease surveillance at district level. Finally to provide training to all the district health officials on the GIS based health application. This project was implemented for Karnataka Health Systems Development Project (KHSDP), Bangalore, Karnataka.

Needs
Base maps with current health jurisdiction boundaries were required. To do health jurisdiction, village level information for entire state of Karnataka was required. Custom GIS software development to develop tools for spatial analysis relating to health data was required.

Solution
The mandate of KHSDP includes the need to improve efficiency in the allocation and use of health resources, and to improve the quality, effectiveness and coverage at the first referral level.

Diseases are location specific phenomena, KHSDP recognized the need for Spatial Analysis in Health Monitoring, and Resource Allocation. This required development of health jurisdiction map of Karnataka State, custom GIS software tools for Health applications, finally provide a GIS training to District Officers.

Data from district officers were used to delineate the Primary Health Centre (PHC) and Sub-Centre (SC) jurisdictions for the whole state.

At present there are anomalies between the prescribed Population level and the actual population served by a Health Centre. Similar problems exist in terms of Personnel allocation, and equipment infrastructure.


Health Jurisdictions -Gadag District

Methodology

GIS Database creation
The project was done in two phases. The phase-1 activity was to create the health jurisdiction for the entire Karnataka State. This exercise was done over a period of 6 months, wherein we created a template and sent to each District Health Office to collect PHC and Sub-centre data. This list was mapped to the village boundary and the entire PHC and Sub-centre jurisdiction was compiled. Along with the template even the PHC and Sub-centre locations were prepared. This was verified and corrected with the help of the District Health officials and the field officers at the district.

Contents of the GIS Database
The GIS database consists of –

Map Data

  • Administrative boundaries up to Village level
  • Road Network
  • Rivers and streams
  • Backwaters

Health Jurisdiction

  • Primary Health Centre boundary,
  • Sub-centre boundary

Health Infrastructure Locations

  • PHC points,
  • Sub-centre points,
  • District hospital,
  • Taluka hospital,
  • Referral Centres,
  • CHC points,
  • PHU Points,
  • Equipment workshop location.

Attribute Data

  • Infrastructure,
  • Personnel
  • Supplies
  • Diseases
  • Census Data
  • State Economic Profile

Software Development
The Phase-2 activity was to develop a custom GIS software specific to the needs of the Health Department. A detailed system study was conducted to understand the user requirements. Based on the user requirements a Software Requirements Specification document was prepared and circulated with the department for feedback and approval. Once this was done the software development process was conducted. Outcome of this is robust GIS software with specific tools catering to Health Department. Some of the Specific Tools that were developed are given below.

Specific Tools for Analysis

Redistricting
Using this tool the District officers can redistrict the PHC boundaries by reallocating the Sub-Centres. Similarly the user can redistrict the Sub-Centre boundaries by reallocating the villages. This will also reorganize the attribute data related to the PHC / Sub-Centre jurisdiction

An example shown below demonstrates the balancing coverage by splitting a PHC by name Sudi in Gadag district, which is serving a large population of 55256 into two manageable PHCs. This was done using the Redistricting tool by splitting the largely populated PHC into two new PHCs namely Sudi and Gajendragad. Now the new PHC will serve a population of 21882 and 33384 respectively.


Relocating
Using this tool the District officers can Relocate the PHC points or Relocate the Sub-Centre locations within the PHC / Sub-Centre jurisdiction. This will appropriately change the attribute data related to the infrastructure location.

Pie-Cutting
The user can pie-cut a boundary feature using another boundary feature and view layers that are within this boundary. The new View will have all the layers lying within that boundary feature. This also extracts the table information to all the layers within the pie-cut view.

Integrating with Hospital Management Information System (HMIS)
We have integrated with the existing non-spatial application, which is ASP based. The user can continue to use the HMIS application (ASP interface) for entering hospital data at district level. The HealthMap GIS software can access this data from the server and can do analysis on the HMIS data.

Import/Export Map data and Attribute data through Email/CD
Data sharing and data consistency across the entire state is one of the primary requirements of the system. This allows Map and Attribute data changes and each district to be sent and received through email / CD to maintain the data consistency and current data.

Other Tools
Apart from this we have included tools for Navigation, Display, Tabular functions, Analysis Tools, Query a Map for quick and easy use of the system.

Benefits
KHSDP uses a GIS based DSS for rationalizing Health Infrastructure and Health Services. For the first time, a complete base map of health jurisdictions is available. Health officials can spatially analyze the parameters available in HMIS database. Empower District level officers to prepare proposals to reorganize health jurisdictions, keeping local constraints in perspective. Spatial disease monitoring at District and State level is enabled.

Training
Spatial Data Pvt Ltd. has trained more than 75 officers on HealthMap. The application has been delivered to health officials in all 27 districts of Karnataka.

Conclusion
Spinfo HealthMap enables officials to:

  • Rationalize Health Services Infrastructure to serve allocated population
  • Do spatial analysis on disease surveillance and monitoring and other health indicators, and focus on a particular area.
  • Share consistent data with all users, and enable all offices to be up-to-date with the Health Information.
  • Spatially visualize the jurisdiction and the load on resources so that they can plan for more efficient use of resources.

Acknowledgements
We thank all the people involved in this project for making this project a great success. In particular Principal Secretary, Health and Family Welfare Department, Govt of Karnataka, Commissioner, Department of Health and Family Welfare Services, Director of Health and Family Welfare Services, Project Administrator, Karnataka Health Systems Development Project (KHSDP), Additional Director Medical, KHSDP, Dr.H.Sudarshan, Health Task Committee, Dr.Naina Rani, Deputy Director, HMIS, Dr. B.S.Rajamma, Deputy Director, Staff of HMIS, Dr.S.Rajagopalan, MD, Spatial Data Pvt Ltd, All the Staff of Spatial Data Pvt Ltd, Also all the people who have directly / indirectly involved while implementing this project.