M.Tech. Remote Sensing Student,Dept. of Remote Sensing Birla Institute of Technology,Ranchi- 835215
E-mail: [email protected]
Dr. M. S. Nathawat
Professor & Head, Department of Remote sensing Birla Institute of Technology,Ranchi-835215, Jharkhand.
Tel: +91-651-276003, Fax: +91-651-275401
E-mail: [email protected]
Urbanization has brought forth several maladies and suffering to human kind, besides bringing economic and cultural development in its fold. Due to pressure of urbanization most of the cities are growing fast and sometimes they develop beyond the planned limits. Generally the unplanned areas of the city contains a quarter of the total population, where the spatial information is missing because of non-availability of up to date maps.
Due to increasing industrialization and population large quantities of wastes are being generated in different forms such as- solid, liquid, sludge and gases. Each city produces tones of solid wastes daily from house holds, hospitals, industry offices, market centers etc. some of these are biodegradable some are non biodegradable and Hazardous waste. Wastes are directly thrown away on the street roads, city garbage collecting places etc. Out of which most of it still remain there, which later pile up and chocks cities drainage lines. Earlier waste disposal did not pose problem due to less population and lack of public awareness. But due to rapid urbanization, proportionate increase in domestic and industrial solid waste generation was observed in large cities. The collection, handling and disposal of this large waste with conventional methods have become increasingly difficult. The efficacy of solid waste disposal depends upon selection of proper site and there are several issues that have impact for site selection . Broadly they are divided into three categories i.e. Economic, Social and Environmental. The Geological, Geotechnical and Hydrogeological parameters fall within the environmental category. The ultimate aim is to select a site where the greatest protection of the environment is provided. Site selection is a part of environmental planning, where the principal part is of problem to select Landscape that is functional safe.
Objectives: The objectives of the study are stated below:
- Mapping the different wasteland categories using IRS 1C(LISSIII) imagery by visual interpretation technique.
- Mapping of Ranchi municipal area with different ward boundaries and attribute data attachment.
- Selection of wastelands to dispose Municipal waste and provide this to RMC.
- Creation of a GIS database for decision support system.
Keeping these objectives in view the present study has been undertaken to extract information from IRS 1C LISS III and high resolution PAN imagery regarding identification of wasteland. Identification of wasteland to select it as a waste disposal sites is crucial because it involves study of number of parameters.
Spatial analysis for Site Selection:
We have used spatial analyst of Arc View for selection of waste disposal sites. As we all know that GIS is a system of computer hardware, and software, designed to allow users to collect manage analyze and retrieve large volume of spatially referenced data and associated attribute data collected from a variety of sources. It plays a special role in the context of generating and managing complex environmental database system.
The use of GIS is found ideal for preliminary waste disposal site selection studies. This technology makes it possible to relate the Ground water of a site with the health parameters of its inhabitants. The ability of overlay gives it a unique power in helping us to make decision about the identification of waste disposal sites. Once a GIS Database is developed, it can provide an efficient and cost effective means of analyzing the best site for disposal of solid waste. Manual method of selection of such sites is very tedious. Integration and correlation of the information related to the factors considered for site selection, which is very complex, can be handled easily with GIS. We have taken experts opinion from various fields, which was required to finalize the parameters, which governs the selection of such site.
Study Area: –
Ranchi Urban complex has been chosen as our study area which is now declared as the capital of newly created Jharkhand State. Ranchi Urban Complex is Urban Agglomeration of Ranchi, Doranda, Namkum, Hatia, Kanke, Jaganath nagar and some other small towns. It is situated on the central plateau of Chotanagpur with its cardinal points 23 degree23′ North latitude and 25 degree 23’East Longitude with an altitude of 2128 feet above mean sea level.
Ranchi Regional development Authority (RRDA) covers an area of 612340 hectares out of which15914 hectares covered by urban centers. Ranchi Municipal Corporation covers 177.19km squares area. According to 2001 census data the population of Ranchi Urban Agglomeration is 862850 and %literacy is 74.39.
Data Used:- Following data was used for the study.
- IRS IC LISSIII (23.5m spatial resolution) and PAN (5.8m spatial resolution).
- Topographic maps (73E/7) NE, NW, SE and SW in the form of hardcopy at 1:25000 scale.
- Map of Ranchi municipal area at 1:25000 scale showing different wards in the form of hard copy from Ranchi Municipal Corporation.
Non spatial data: –
- Census-data 2001 of Ranchi containing information about population of different wards, number of houses, number of workers etc.
- Geological map of Ranchi from Geological survey of India, Patna.
- Hydrogeological map of Ranchi and data containing information about Ground water table (Pre and Post monsoon), Ground water Fluctuation rate etc., from Central Ground Water Board, Patna
Methodology Adopted for Analysis;-
The Study was conducted to define and understand the current problem of waste disposal in Ranchi and to suggest best possible sites for waste disposal. We have used RS and GIS techniques to identify and selection of such sites. As we know that modeling process of analysis gets enhanced by GIS , which can be further combined in meaningful sequences to develop new models. There are number of methods available to tackle problems like selection of waste disposal site. One of the problems in decision theory of multi-parameter analysis is the determination of the relative importance of each parameter. The site selection for solid waste disposal facility involves comparison of different options based on social evaluation of each of them for detailed environmental, social and community impact. Thus the problem requires human judgement at all levels. Hence based on experience and likely impact on surrounding environment different weights were assigned to all the parameters.
In order to achieve the objective sets for, the cross parameter relationship method has been adopted in which weightage of different parameters were assigned on the basis of their importance (Table-1). This methodology comprises the following steps: –
- Selecting criteria for evaluation of sites.
- Apportioning a total score of 1000 among the assessment criteria based on the importance.
- Developing Site Sensitivity Index (SSI).
- Estimating score for each parameter for various sites alternatives using SSI.
- Adding the score for individual site alternatives to rank the alternatives based on total score.
- Classification of the site based on final score.
Based on extensive study, following parameters were used for the selection of solid waste disposal sites: –
- Depth of bedrock.
- Slope of the ground.
- Type of rocks present in the area.
- Structural feature of the area.
- Water table depth in meter.
- Fluctuation of water table in meter.
- Distance of surface drainage in meter.
- Ground water yield.
- Soil type.
- Permeability of soil in cm/sec.
- Population around the site in km radius.
- Landuse of the area.
- Distance of the sites from the waste producing units.
- Present Transport route.
- Type of waste.
Table 1: – Criteria with Weightages for Municipal Waste Disposal sites: –
|Criteria||Weightage for Municipal Waste Disposal Site|
|Slope of the ground||60|
|Type of rock||70|
|Hydrological (Surface and Ground Water)||260|
|Water table depth||90|
|Fluctuation of water table||80|
|Ground water yield||40|
|Population within 1km radius||90|
|Distance from waste producing units||40|
|Transport route present||30|
|Distance from Airport||60|
|Type of waste||60|
In the present study GIS has played a very important task. With the help of Network analysis in ARC/INFO software most economical route for transportation has been computed. The distance between two points along the Road Network was computed through GIS.
Hydrogeological map was interpolated over the entire study area in GIS Environment. Buffer zone was created with the help of available data around the proposed site in GIS Environment.
Table 2: – Rating Parameters with Sensitivity Levels of Various Sites:-
|Bedrock depth (m)||>100||100-60||60-20||30||30-20||20-10||500||500-300||300-100||20||20-10||15-10||5|
|Type of waste||Organic||Municipal||Municipal with small amount of Hazardous||Hazardous|
Results of Selection of Solid Waste Disposl Site: –
Based on image interpretation of LISS III Ranchi image five possible sites for waste disposal has been identified . On the basis of actual field data, parameters of site sensitivity index are given weightage. The value of sensitivity index is multiplied by the corresponding weightage, results in a score of the parameters.
Different classes were ranked on the basis of overall score obtained by them and presented in Table 3.
Table 3: – Summary of Site Ranking and Classification:-
|Site||Overall Score Obtained||Class||Generalised Level of Site|
|3. Haldama (Near Irba)||385||IV||Good|
|4.Phatiyatanar (Near Pithuria)||395||IV||Good|
The total score for proposed disposal sites are varying from 337 to 494.On the basis of results obtained from the table-3 Site no 3 scored lowest score- 337 i.e.- Areas near to Balsiring, ranked GOOD. Sukurhutu i.e. Site no 1 scored 338. Score of these two areas are near about same. Capacity of these two sites is quite large and waste disposal for these sites may be continued for more than 5 years and therefore these two sites are considered to be the best site for disposal of Municipal solid waste for Ranchi.
Site no 5 scored highest 494. MSW disposal might affect population here. Waste disposal is recommended here with proper management practices.
In this study it was tried to find out the potential waste disposal sites using RS and GIS techniques for Ranchi Municipal Corporation.Selection of suitable sites for waste disposal is based on several factors. During analysis it was observed that the best site for disposal of waste is Sukurhutu and Balsiring. The main advantage of this site is the availability of vast stretch of wasteland and fully developed transportation network.
Site no 5 scored highest among other sites, found to lie in ward number18 disposal of organic waste for Composting is recommended so that the inhabitants of this area may get benefited by its Manurial output.
On the basis of integration of various parameters IRS- IC, PAN and LISS III imagery and GIS as tool have been found to be very useful for the interpretation and identification of waste disposal site. Thus with the use of these technologies management of municipal waste will no longer be a problem for city administrators.
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