Mone Iye Cornelia Marschiavelli
National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping, Cibinong – Bogor, INDONESIA
West Sumba Regency, which administratively, is part of East Nusa Tenggara Province, has a unique physical characteristic and relatively different compared to other areas in Indonesia. This area has specific and complex characteristics related to its climate and fertility condition. These conditions make this area threatened by the environmental degradation and food insecurity. In order to support the regional development and create territory independence, it is necessary to make an optimal land use planning. This spatial planning is focused on sustainable agriculture sector development. Furthermore, the result of this study can help West Sumba to grow and evolve with an ability to prevent from food insecurity in the future.
This study was conducted using remote sensing technology, GIS analysis and field survey to assess parameters which is determining the internal and external land characteristics. Subsequently, the eight parameters were found as the land characteristics and analysed to obtain the referral agriculture commodities. Combination of the land suitability evaluation and people participatory method produced the thirteen-referral-agricultural commodities which are expected to be developed in West Sumba with total area of 70,121 km2. Based on this result, it can be concluded that the referral-agricultural commodities not only can be obtained based on scientific approach within land suitability of physical condition but also have to combined with other social aspects such as local characteristics as a primary actor in the agriculture.
Currently, the food need versus population growth has become an important issue the world over. The demand for food is predicted to grow as a result of population growth. During the 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognised that by 2050, food production must increase by about 70% — 34% higher than it is today — to feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a). Suryana (2002) estimated the total population of Indonesia in 2010 will reach 245.71 million and the demand of rice as the staple food will reach 36.42 million tons. It will have profound implications for the world’s agricultural production in coming decade.
Agriculture provides essential nourishment for people and is the necessary basis for many economic activities. Therefore, the government developed some agricultural efforts both intensification and extensification in order to optimized the agricultural production. Optimisation of agricultural production was affected by several factors such as physical aspects of the environment associated with the condition of crop and socio cultural aspects related to local culture as the perpetrators of agricultural cultivation. The government should consider comprehensive and sustainable efforts such as the aspects of land suitability and socio-cultural, especially on certain commodities that have high economic value. Subsequently, it is expected can encourages economic growth and prosperity of local communities.
The physical condition of the environment is a major factor that determines the types of crops to grow, develop, and produce. It also affects the socio-cultural patterns of people living on that area. Based on these considerations, each region with specific physical condition will have specific character of agricultural products and also socio-cultural.
West Sumba, administratively, is part of East Nusa Tenggara Province. It has a very unique physical condition with a very different climate characteristic than other areas in Indonesia. West Sumba has a tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw), with a small number of rainy days, high solar intensity, limited water, and high temperature difference between maximum and minimum. It has total area 4.051,92 km2 and most of the area still unoccupied. The population of West Sumba is 111,023 people, with population density of 151 inhabitants per square kilometer. Most of them work in agricultural sector (71.45%). Despite having a large population, West Sumba has limitations in terms of human resources. West Sumba has 71.59% low income people with low education level (BPS, 2010).
Considering all the facts above, this study tried to assess the potential commodities which have possibility to be developed in West Sumba with taking into account the environmental characteristics and socio-cultural aspects. Combination of remote sensing, land suitability using GIS and socio-cultural analysis through focus group discussion (FGD) can be used as a tool to formulate the agricultural commodities selection in order to optimise agricultural production and support regional development.
1.2 Purpose and objectives
The purpose of this study was to formulate the selection method of agricultural commodities which are suitable for developing in specific regions with taking into account both environmental aspect and socio-cultural aspect (human resources). The objectives are:
- To generate the land use map, slope map, geomorphology map, soil map, and rainfall intensity map that support the potential agricultural land suitability analysis.
- To generate socio cultural studies related to the potential aspects that exist in the communities regarding to selection of agricultural commodities.
- To generate the referral map of agricultural commodities.
1.3 Benefits of the study
This study was expected to be particularly useful to sharpening the site selection for development and also in the distribution of potential agricultural commodities in West Sumba. On other hand, the results of this study are expected to become the basic tools for developing methods of better agricultural planning which combines both the physical and socio cultural aspects.
This study combines several methods: remote sensing, GIS and FGD as a tool to achieve the results. The stages of activities can be described as follows:
During this stage, we collected basic data and information related to the areas (spatial and statistical data). Then, we did the visual interpretation of Landsat Satellite (May 2006) to generate the land cover and geomorphology map. Data and information collected were subsequently prepared for the field survey.
- Field Survey
The field survey was conducted to verify the data and information gathered on the preparation stage. We also carried out the FGD during this phase. The purpose of FGD is to get the general information related to people perception and need in developing the agricultural commodities in the study area.
- Data processing and analysis
Data processing includes editing, modeling and calculation using a simple scoring method. Spatial data was verified through field surveys which was then analysed in terms of physical suitability of land and obtaining input FGD consideration of socio-cultural picture of the study area. The final result was then presented as maps that support the analysis of potential agricultural land suitability.
West Sumba Regency is a district in East Nusa Tenggara province of Indonesia. Geographically, it is located between coordinates 9º11º – 10º20º S and 118º55º – 120º23º E. On the northern part, it is bordered by Sumba Strait, the Indian Ocean in the South, West Sumba district in the West and Central Sumba in the East. Based on BPS (2008), it has total area of 737, 42 km2 with 6 sub districts (see Table 1). The number of inhabitants in West Sumba is 111,023 people, consisting of 57,567 men and 53,456 women (BPS, 2010).
Table 1: Total Area based on Sub district in Sumba Barat 2008
The existing land use based on the remote sensing analysis of Landsat ETM7 (May 2006) shows the 8 classes, which are: paddy field (sw), farm (ld), grass field (rp), shrub (sb), mangrove (bk), forest (ht), swamp (rw), and bare land (tt). The land use map of West Sumba can be seen in Figure 1.
The study area can be grouped into 6 slope classes, where 41.9% of the total area is categorised as the hilly area and the 31% categorised as the flat area (see Table 2). The slope map of West Sumba can be seen in Figure 2.
Table 2: Slope Classes of West Sumba
Landform analysis was performed through the interpretation of Topography Map scale 25,000 and Landsat ETM7. The landform classifications refer to LREP II Landform Classification (Marsoedi et.al., 1997). The result shows that the study area can be classified into 7 landform groups, which are: alluvial, marine, fluvio-marine, karsts, volcanic, tectonic, and other (Table 3). Figure 3 shows the landform map of West Sumba.
Tabel 3: Landform Classes of West Sumba
West Sumba is located in the inter-tropical zone which has a monsoon type of climate, influenced by the movement of monsoon winds and characterised by one rainy peak in one year. Rainfall data series for 25 years recorded in 21 rainfall stations and generally indicates that based on the annual rainfall in this area can be classified into three zone: (1) areas with annual rainfall > 2,000 mm (agro-climatic zone C3 and rain type C) and represented by the hilly and mountainous in the central part of study area; (2) areas with annual rainfall between 1,000 – 2,000 mm (agro-climatic zone D4 and rainfall type C) with represented by the undulating area and karsts with height of 400-700 m above sea level; (3) areas with annual rainfall <1000 mm (agro-climatic zone D4 and rainfall type F) with represented by the coastal plain in Northern part with height < 400 m. These conditions affect the soil moisture regime that develops in areas that are not influenced by direct water fluctuation. Figure 4 shows the rainfall intensity map of West Sumba.
Soil classification used in this study was based on soil taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2003). Classification of soil was allotted during field survey based on its morphological characteristics. It was then observed and supported by data analysis in laboratory. There are 6 ordo of soil in study area: Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Vertisols, Alfisols and Ultisols (Figure 5).
All the information already gathered (land use, slope, landform, rainfall intensity, and soil map) was then analysed using simple scoring method to retrieve new information about the referral agriculture commodities map. There are 11 classes of commodities zone in West Sumba (Table 4) and spatially presented as a map in Figure 6.
Tabel 4: Commodities Zone of West Sumba
Focus group discussion was carried out in six sub districts of West Sumba (Figure 7). Several results were gained from this activity related to people’s needs and expectation in agricultural commodities development. These are:
- There is limited ability of public capital
- Level of people’s understanding of the variety and types of agricultural commodities is very limited due to low education levels.
- People are more oriented to the low-risk agricultural commodities and rapid-production plants.
Figure 7: Focus Group Discussion
4 Conclusions and recommendations
There are several conclusions that can be described as follows:
- Physical characteristics of an area have a great influence and affect the diversity of commodities that can be selected in the agricultural commodities development.
- Agricultural commodities development should consider other social aspects such as local characteristics as a primary actor in the agriculture.
- Water resource management is critical factors of the success agricultural development, especially in the extremes areas such as West Sumba.
Some recommendations for agricultural commodities development in West Sumba are:
- Development of labor-intensive agriculture
- Development of agriculture cultivation based on reforestation
- Selection of agriculture commodities that has high economic value, long production life and rapid-production
- Farmers group formation
- Involving stakeholders in the dissemination and monitoring of indigenous business development efforts of sustainable agriculture.
- BPS. 2010. Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010 Kabupaten Sumba Barat: Data Agregat Per Kecamatan. West Sumba Province. Indonesia.
- Marsoedi, Ds., Widagdo, J. Dai, N. Suharta, Darul SWP, S. Hardjowigeno, J. Hof, dan E.R. Jordens.1997. Pedoman Klasifikasi Landform. LT 5 Versi 3.0. Proyek LREP II, CSAR, Bogor.
- Soil Survey Staff. 1993. Soil Survey Manual. Agriculture Handbook No. 18. SCS-USDA. Washington DC.
- Suryana, A. 2002. Ketahanan Pangan: Mati-hidupnya Bangsa Kita di Kemudian Hari. Paper on National Seminar Forum WACANA. Bogor, Indonesia.