Optimisation of police patrolling: A GIS approach

Optimisation of police patrolling: A GIS approach

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P Subba Rao, V. R. Hegde, Rajanna Gourashetty, Siddu Kalgudi, Arvind U.A., Kaliraj
IN-RIMT

Introduction
People in Urban areas have a constant fear of robbery, theft and similar untoward incidents. Though police has been providing night security services, such incidents are on the rise Main reasons are lack of adequate personnel, lack of up-to-date spatial information (map of the locality) so that police could plan their activity in an optimal manner. Keeping in view of the difficulties faced by police, a case study towards optimising the security systems in Bangalore has been conducted. Since, there are various aspects involved which have both geographical as well as other attribute connotations / contexts, it was found feasible to adopt a GIS approach for optimisation of police service. Following sections present in brief the sailent features of the study.

Database
Spatial An up-to-date of a locality as been prepared by using IRS-1C-PAN (high resolution) data on 1:10000 scale so that each road is clearly shown. However, the map has been validated in the field for its reliability in so far as the road network pattern and certain spot details are concerned. The map thus prepared; gives the information about the road name / number, spot details like hotels, bars, wine stores, apartments, normal residential or commercial zones etc.

Also, the geographical limits (jurisdiction) of the police station is also shown. The spatial data has been digitised and organised around the GIS (ARC / INFO) core.

Project Design
While designing the project operation, following assumptions are made:

  • Police security to be provided during night between 10.00 P.M. to 5 A.M.
  • Armed policemen shall move with a speed of 2 km/hr.
  • Any spot within the limits of the concerned police station should be watched at every 60 minutes interval.
  • All the sensitive spots like bars, hotels, wine shops, cinemahalls, slums should be given additional importance.
  • At constant interval of time, say 1hr, the policemen should meet each other but not continue in the same path or direction i.e. the path of different persons should be different, yet to be covered in accordance with the speed .
  • Given the length of each path (roads), at a constant speed of movement, and under the condition that every spot should be visited at a regular interval of one hour, determine the number of police personnel to man limits of the police station

Case of Chandra Layout Police Station
Chandra Layout Police Station limits in Bangalore city and covers an area of about 5 sq. kms. The area has been divided into five beats. The main Police Station is located at the centre.

A scheme for providing optimum security has been marked and also the number of personnel. The output consists of:

  1. Number of Police Personnel required.
  2. Starting Point for each team / person while on patrolling.
  3. The direction and length of path for each team.
  4. Junction points where two teams meet.
  5. Optimum path for the senior officer to check the patrolling operation.