Mountain-Taiga Forests Western and mid Siberia – A case study
E. I. Kuzmenko
The paper to answering to actual questions of forest typology according to the problem of dynamic genetic classification of forests on the landscape and ecological basis in Russian regions of the Western plain and Mid Siberia mountains. The geographic and genetic approach corresponds to the task of studying and construction of forest typological classifications on the up-to-date level of forest typology development as the most important part of forest history and practical forestry while high natural spatial and temporal changes and antropogenic transformation of forest ecosystems. Its principles were formulated schematically at the beginning of 20 century, they are also found in articles of B.A. Ivashkevich (1927, 1928) but they are elaborated in full measure on the example of pine-deciduous forests of the Far East by B.P. Kolesnikov (1956), E.P.Smolonogov (1990), E.I.Kuzmenko, E.P.Smolonogov (2000),(2001), E.I.Kuzmenko (2002), E.P. Smolonogov, S.V.Zalesov (2002) . The next development of theoretical basis of genetic approach and its approval in different regions of Russia, incl. forests of the Urals, Western Siberia and Mid Siberia made possible to formulate some general statements, stated in the book and acceptable for the elaboration of typological classification as for mountainous as for plain forests.
The first part of the paper is devoted to the theoretical and methodical questions of spatial and temporal dynamics studies of forest ecosystems. The genetic classification reflects the spatial and ecological differentiation of forest growing conditions and forest cover. The elementary unit of this classification is a forest area or, according to V.P. Sukachov (1964), a forest biogeocenoses with its components connected in the united forest forming process and what becomes apparent based on the age and regeneration time period dynamics and morphostructural and functional changes of biogeocenoses. Therefore, the ground of methodical approach is the classical statement of F. Clements (1928) about the fact that the spread of succession communities in space can correspond with their succession in time and the statement of N.V. Tretyakov (1937, 1956) that the plantations of different ages, formed under the same conditions, can be united into one natural development row. Every biogeocenoses and its components can be described, measured and an average characteristics can be given to its integral units, incl. forest type. We stated a research methodology of age and regeneration dynamics, disturbed after cuttings, fire and other antropogenic impacts. On the first stage the dynamics aspect reflected unification of nuclear and derivative forest biogeocenoses in one genetic type, which have similar growing conditions. Then the age and regeneration cycles were researched on the base of the dynamics state of all biogeocenoses according to the forest character. The mathematical methods were used for data processing when concerning every age period in age and regeneration cycles of nuclear, mainly the most typical pine and Siberian pine biogeocenoses, the average formulas of forests species characteristics and information entropy as a measure of diversity. For computer analysis of the forest biogeocenoses dynamics processes a computer program “FOREST” was prepared, diagrams of entropy quantities depending on the age of trees were constructed for the consequent analysis of the general tendencies of forest changes while regenerating (Kuzmenko, Smolonogov, 2000).
In the second part the history of dynamical (genetic) approach in forest cartography and a forest methodical of age and regeneration dynamics of the communities are stated when preparing of fragments of the large-scale maps (1:100.000, 1:200000^) of up-to-date and forecasting forest vegetation. On the basis of characterization of forest vegetation in age and regeneration cycles of disturbed biogeocenoses the classification diagrams of genetic forest types were prepared, dividing into zones of weakly studied areas was undertaken what is necessary for forest organizations responsible for thinning, forest reconstruction and measures for forest regeneration. While mapping the space pictures ??-4, wich electronic copy were writtenon SD-ROM and automatically worked up with computer using GIS ArcView, ERDAS . A complicated practical task was estimation of resources potential of the forest area as according to aspects of using of wood and protecting characteristics as also to forest formation tendencies. For the central part of the left side of Yenissey region, Angara-Yenissey region, where the forest vegetation is disturbed because of fires, cuttings and vermins a complex ecological and resources estimation was given and the forest areas including raw material, nature protecting and forest formating complexes were determined. While estimating the forest formating complex the areas were marked where the natural regeneration satisfactorily is and areas which should be supported and also areas where the forest plantations are removed and it is necessary to move the former forest areas into areas with other economical activity .
The conclusion considers the influence character of the age and regeneration dynamics mechanisms of different forest types and created genetic classifications of Mid Siberia regions for the perspective of industry development of forests, efficiency of their regeneration, thinning and productivity increase in considered regions.