Cdr. V. K. Gupta (Retd.)
Radiant Informatics Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 110048.
Email: [email protected]
GIS can play a major role in crime monitoring. It can help police to correlate, visualise and analyse crime data
Crime rate in all the countries of the world is going up every year with the change of technology and materialistic way of life. The crimes in developing countries are also increasing due to poor socio, political and economic conditions of the countries.
Fig. 1: Crime Monitoring
Latest strategies on use of weapons and communications are adopted by the criminals. The induction or know how of modern technologies into police takes much longer time than by the criminals. Criminals are grouping together by using latest communications, transport and weapons. These gangs specialise in different type of crimes and have their operations all over the country as well as abroad. Indian gangsters are shaking hand with international operators, thereby, making policing little more difficult. Crime of heinous nature if not solved on time, leads to brutal publicity and paints adverse image of police. Crimes are due to population, migration of people, unemployment, media and socio political conditions.
In this background, GIS can play a major role in crime monitoring. It can help police to correlate, visualise and analyse crime data.
Fig. 2: Crime Analysis
GIS for crime monitoring uses digitised maps. The crime data contains geographic or location components. It could be a place of crime, criminals address, or addresses, police station’s geographic jurisdiction and suspects addresses. It could contain house number, street number, location, district and state name or pin code. These informations are geocoded on the maps with variety of symbols. The crime and criminal data base information is correlated to the place of crime and the criminals. GIS builds visual display layer by layer. The crime picture becomes crystal clear thereby improving the police management.
GIS can be applied in following areas as far as crime is concerened:
- Crime Monitoring
- Crime Analysis
- Crime Research
- Criminal Network
- Crime Patrol
- Crime Legal
Fig. 3: Crime Research
State police is organised into zones and districts and each district has many police stations like thana, chauki, beatstation etc. The location of each police station can be marked on the digitised maps with relevant symbols depicting the role of the police post/office. The geographic boundaries under each Thana and district police can also be digitised to facilitate thematic shading.
The FIR’S are lodged at the police station. The suitable data base containing important fields like FIR No., Date, CRIME code, victim name & address, dead, injured, lost, missing and suspect name and address and its physical attributes like sex, age, weight, height, colour, hair style, eye colour, etc. can be entered into database which can be further linked to GIS. The crime can be categorised under heinous and Non heinous code wise or in any fashion as desired. Crime monitoring provides date wise, crime wise, location wise output in the form of graphs, thematic shading and printed report. It facilitates reviewing the performance of police (Fig. 1).
Fig. 4: Crime Network
GIS provides one of the best analysis tools through which crime can be analysed by any of the following techniques:
- SQL Advanced quarry Language
- Group results / calculation
- Geographic search
- Thematic shading
The important graphs like Bar chart/Pie chart/line chart/Dot display/Area chart can be drawn for combination of fields like type of crime/place/period, etc. (Fig. 2).
The thematic analysis can be done on geographic location of:
- Police Station
- District HQ
Crime analysis can produce answers to the queries on date or a period or monthly or yearly as per the requirement at the level of police station, district HQ. or at state level such as:
- How many FIR reported?
- How many FIR worked out?
- Last year FIR reported and worked out comparison with this year
- Last year monthly comparison of FIR reported.
Similarly graphical analysis can be done for the following crimes:
- Non heinous
- IPC Act
Fig. 5: Crime Monitoring System at the state and district level
The dossier of the criminals have a valuable data. The information from the dossier can be linked to type of crime and suspected criminal data base. The algorithm defined on the following logics can also search the suspects or it can be customised as per the requirements:
- Age +/- 5 years
- Weight+/-5 KG
- Height+/-10 CM
- Colour near by shade codes
The GIS can generate querries by combination of fields or on a single field. The crime research can be of great use in narcotics, alcoholism, heinous crimes where hard core professionals are involved. The police intelligence information can also be linked as a separate data base to assist tracing criminals and also forecasting early warning. This technique could be used for monitoring terrorist and espionage activities (Fig. 3).
Criminals generally gang up under a leader called Boss. This gang specialises in a particular type of crime. It grows from petty crime to heinous depending on their success rate. Crime Network facilitates to create layer by layer crime networking. Crime Network can be created for murderers, abductors, smugglers, thieves, dacoits, gamblers, etc. Each crime gang members address (residence or operation) and even their movement and sighting can be plotted on a digitised map with different geocoding by symbols, colour, pattern, etc. Multimix of Crime Network, can be visualised to appreciate the interlinking of gangs. In addition the intelligence report can be plotted on the particular Crime Network. The system so designed gives the exact diary of events and provides early warning whether the gang is growing in number and activity or shifted its area of operation or left the area or changed its mode of operation (Fig. 4).
Police has to patrol streets, colonies, lanes to keep watch on the suspects and illegal activities or suspicious person to maintain peace in their area. Patrolling is done by various means like Patrol cars, motorcycle, cycle or night beat by walking through lanes. The route for patrolling has to be designed and planned for the selected areas of the jurisdiction of each police station.
GIS can facilitate patrol route planning in the efficient manner and patrol monitoring. At any moment the location of the patrol can be seen on the computer. Patrolling manpower and vehicle can be optimally utilised through Crime Patrol depending on the criminal density and activity in the area. GIS can also be utilised to monitor the operational capability of patrolling vehicles. The man power and vehicle utilisation for patrolling to produce effective results can be achieved through this.
GIS can also be helpful in linking FIR to legal system intimating cases due in court, date wise, and court wise. It assist in planning to attend the court cases fully prepared and attendance by the competent person. Courts can also be located on a digitised maps and a diary of cases can be entered related to FIR,s and Police Station wise. Number of cases due in court with full details can be made available by the GIS instantly. The browser of the data base can also assist in quick finding of the cases on different indexes.
Key to success
The computerised data collation is the most difficult task with the police. The various reasons for this are:
- Education level is low
- Police stations are poorly equipped
- No dust proof building
- Telephone erratic
- Stabalised power supply not available
- Computer expertise
- Computer trained persons not available
- Can not keep pace with computer changing technology
- Can not afford obsolescence every six months
- Hardly time available for computer training
- No continuity of job, frequent transfer.
Police budget is meager and can not afford high cost technology.
CRIME INFO is specifically designed on the international crime standard suiting to Indian Police for effectively controlling crimes. It is customised for the individual application of Police.