LRIMS for better administration
Dr Aruna Saxena & Akanksha Patil
Center for Remote Sensing &
GIS MANIT, Bhopal
Planners of the 21st century are handicapped today. The reason: lack of authentic and up to date information, be it about the beneficiary groups, existing facilities, terrain and soil conditions or land ownership and occupancy details. Land information refers to any physical, legal, economic information or characteristics concerning land.
Land information has been used in a variety of systems over the years; from register of deed tract indexes to surveyors tie sheets or soil surveys. Today, many organisations are moving land information into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Land information is an integral part of government, non-profit and private sector activities. GIS along with satellite remote sensing has added a new dimension to cadastral mapping, database preparation and analysis of land records.
No doubt, creation of fresh land records throughout the country is a highly cost intensive and time consuming operation. However, there is no escape from the fact that the century-old edifice of conventional land records has been fast crumbling and should be replaced sooner than later, at least in a phased manner, by a contemporary system that is alive to the needs of the day and will remain so for decades to come. For this, it is essential to employ modern technologies of remote sensing and GIS to achieve higher order accuracy, economy and speed in generating spatial database, right from the level of individual landholding.
By taking the advantage of remote sensing and GIS technology Land Record Information Management System (LRIMS) for cadastral mapping is developed by integrating digital cadastral map and land record database.
NEED OF LRIMS SOFTWARE
The software integrates the spatial and other kind of information within the single system. It offers a consistent framework for storing, analysing and displaying land data. By putting cadastral map and other kind of information into the digital form, it allows the user to retrieve the information. Visual Basic is the powerful programming language which is used to design excellent front end tool. Software is primarily concerned with the storage and integration of land data. In such system digital map provide the foundation to build real estate information using land parcels as basic building blocks. This software can be utilised by any organisation to store and analyse the land records.
Khamkhera village is situated in Goharganj tehsil of Raisen district in Madhya Pradesh. It lies between the latitude 23º03′ to 23º 04′ north and longitude 77º 30′ to 77º 32′ east with the area 200 hectare. Most of the land in the Khamkhera village is agricultural land. Khamkhera is in the Malwa plateau and drained by river Betwa and its tributaries. Total population of the village is 281 (as per 2001 census). The village is well connected by road and rail. NH 12 passes through the heart of the study area, thus giving it an excellent connectivity to the State. The Delhi – Mumbai railway line also passes thorough the study area, thus giving it connectivity to the port.
DATA AND SOFTWARE USED
Input required for developing software at the village level are topographic sheets (Number 55E/8, 55E/12) covering entire village. Field boundaries have been delineated using merged image of IRS 1D LISS III sensor and CARTOSAT 1 satellite with the spatial resolution 2.5 m.
For analysing land use/ land cover and crop distribution, images/magazines/2008/oct of the month Nov- 2006 and Feb 2007 were used. Khasra map and field measurement book details were obtained from village Patwari. Following software were used for the development of LRIM System.
- Erdas Imagine 8.5 – Image Processing, Analysis
- Arc GIS 9.2- Analysis, Database Generation, Map Composition
- Visual Basic 6.0- Design & Development of Interface
The methodology for the design of LRIMS was divided into three phases – database design, data analysis and application development.
Phase I – Database design
Database designing phase starts with the data acquisition which leads to the preparation of maps and integration of the attribute data with map. Khasra map and satellite image in the raster format is imported into Erdas Imagine (*.img) software. Khasra map was geo-referenced using satellite image by taking 10 GCPs with the Datum Modified Everest and Lambert conformal Conic projection. The digital database of Khamkhera village of Risen district was created after performing the editing operation.
Field boundaries are classified as polygon. Attribute data like Khasra number, land holder’s name, address, area, land revenue, field type and season (rabi/kharif) was integrated with the digitised cadastral map.
Phase II- Data analysis
Analysis is done on the basis of visual interpretation and ground truth collection. Land use / land cover and crop distribution maps were made.
Land use/ land cover map of Khamkhera village
Merged image of IRS 1D LISS III and CARTOSAT I (Nov-2006)
LAND USE/ LAND COVER DISTRIBUTION
There were nine classes identified for the land use and land cover distribution with the built up land i.e. 0.81Ha, 86% land is agricultural land. National highway passed through the village covers the area (1.30 Ha), which is the 1 % of the total area. Area along the railway track comprises of 14.72 Ha i.e. the 7% of the land and Betwa river holds the area 8.68 Ha i.e.4% of the total area. Remaining area of 4.66 Ha comes under the others class, which includes 2% of the land which is used for the different purposes.
Land Record Information Management System (LRIMS) interface
Field map of Khamkhera village
Phase III – Application development
Application development Land Record Information Management System (LRIMS) interface Merged image of IRS 1D LISS III and CARTOSAT I (Nov-2006) Land use/ land cover map of Khamkhera village Field map of Khamkhera village phase proceeded with interface design and query generation.
User friendly interface was designed to access and display the land information. With the friendly interface, user can query or search the information with spatial and non spatial data.
Aim of the design is to provide user friendly interface, which is independent of GIS software like ArcGIS, Erdas etc with sufficient functionality to LIS. For interface design and query generation, Visual Basic 6.0 programming language was used and MapwinGIS component was used to display map. Khasra map coverage was converted into shape files because the component only supports.
LRIMS showing field details of the selected land parcel
The developed LRIMS with the functionality of Add layer, Remove layer, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Map view and tabular view etc is sufficient to effectively store, display, manage and analyse land data. Although remote sensing data and GIS software were used to prepare maps and database but the LRIMS is designed to run independent of the GIS software which adds the low cost to the software developed.
Application was designed for the users who were not specialised in the remote sensing and GIS, little knowledge to operate computer is sufficient to use the designed LRIMS. As per the requirement of the project, more functionality can be added to the application. More tools can be designed for better functionalities. The advantages of the developed land information system were as follows;
- Digital forms of the field map provide easy access and analysis procedures.
- User will get benefits from the developed application, which provides effective management of data.
- By using the developed application, it is easy to analyse all aspects of the land.
- It provides better understanding about the field and the surroundings. It will help to reduce land related disputes with the better delineation of boundary and accurate calculations.
- Computerisation of land records and digital maps get a rid off handling paper map and bulk of registers.
(1)Field information in tabular form Display of the search results (2)LRIMS showing field details of the selected land parcel
The application is useful for land revenue department, village administrative officers, farmers and others in planning and developing the villages. Software developed can provide millions of farmers with a measure of security. By using the LRIMS software, land ownership information can be retrieved. User can visualise the ground realities and can better understand the land data. Such system will reduce illegal land holdings and land related disputes.
Krishna Bala, “Land Information System” https://www.gisdevelopment.net. (Map India 2000)
Peter Wyatt and Martin P. Ralphs (Jun 2003), “GIS in Land and Property Management”, eBook,
Ian Heywood, Sarah Cornelius, Steve Carver and Srinivasa Raju, (2006),
“An introduction to Geographical Information Systems”, Second Edition, Pearson Education Inc.
Chang Kang-Tsung, (2006). “Introduction to Geographic Information System.” Third Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill Publication.
Thakur Vinay, Khadanga Ganesh, Venkatesh D.S. and Dr Shukla D.R “Land management system in India – Past, present and future”, (LIS 2000).
Evangelos Petroutsos, “Mastering Visual Basic 6.0”, BPB Publications.
Mishra Asima and Pal Debjyoti, “Land Record Information Management System (LRIMS)” – A conceptual framework, (Map India 2000).
Thakur Vinay, Khadanga Ganesh, Venkatesh D.S. and Dr. Shukla D. R.,
“Land Record Management System in India” – Technical Framework (Map India 2003), https://www.geospatialworld.net. net).