Human-oriented geographical information service should be integrated due to the rapid increase in needs for human-oriented geographical information (hereafter HGI) in accordance with the development of internet and its related instruments. More specifically, its needs have been emerged as the foundation of integrated database for the search for locality. HGI could be regarded as regional information based on general human activities and its organic integrations with physical environment. In other words, as a region is a location in which human and physical activities are integrated, HGI would cover all kinds of activities related to region. Therefore, the main aim of the research, which is the classification of HGI, is to identify locality by investigating inter-relationships between human and physical activities.
Building system of classification for HGI service
Principles of HGI composition
The main aim classifying the HGI system is to identify locality, as HGI is the information of region which is the output of organic inter-relationship between human and physical activities. The composition of the classification system for HGI service is based on three principles in selecting, constituting and verifying and supplementing information (figure 1).
Firstly, the principle of HGI selection should be based on locality, integration and reliability. In HGI selection locality is to identify a local peculiarity, integration is to seek the continuity of time and space and reliability is to retain the accuracy of local information. Secondly, HGI should be constituted in accordance with geographical scales and types of users for HGI. HGI should be concerned with geographical scales and hierarchies. Also, it has to be coupled with needs from various types of users. Finally, the verification and supplementation of HGI is relied on reality reflected on locality, practicality, and alternatives enabled to solve local issues and problems.
The system of classification for HGI has to be constructed with two different characteristics. The first is ‘consistency’ resulted in insights into locality, and the second is ‘flexibility’ enabled to reflect regional inherence. Therefore, the HGI system should be composed of both consistency and flexibility to secure local uniqueness. The validity of ‘category’ and ‘division’ in the HGI classification system should be dependent on ‘consistency’ enabled to be applied in every region in common. On the other hand, flexibility enabled to local inherence could be retained in ‘section’ and ‘sub-section’ in the HGI classification system. Thus, section and sub-section would be modified, supplemented, and improved consistently along with the emergence of new project involved in building HIG service in each individual region.
Figure 1. Principle of HGI composition
Codification of HGI classification system
The HGI classification system should be designed with easy management. To this end, we would suggest codify it with the reference of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC), because its system is similar to the ISIC, in terms of the formation of hierarchy. The codification of HGI classification is as follows. ‘Category’ is codified in A, B, and C, ‘division’ is codified in 2 digits number, ‘section’ is codified next 2 digits, and ‘sub-section’ is codified in next 3 digits (see figure 2).
Figure 2. Codification of HGI classification system
System of classification for HGI
The basic concept of HGI is likely to be regional information based on general human activities and its organic integrations with physical environment. In addition, the HGI classification system would be the way in which identify locality with systematic analysis by enabling us to investigate some regional differences. Based upon the principle of the system of classification for HGI, the detailed structure of HGI has to be classified with hierarchy. It consists of 4 groups – ‘category’, ‘subject (or division)’, ‘sector (or section)’ and ‘item (or sub-section)’.
‘Category’ in the HGI classification system is divided into physical environment, social and culture environment and economic environment, which could be regarded as general environment implicated in overall people’s life and activities.
The category of physical environment is divided into geology and geomorphology, climate, hydrology, and ecology. The category of social and culture environment is divided into population, society, history and culture, and leisure. The category of economic environment is divided into industry, resource, transport and communication, and public services. These divisions are common items which enabled to be applied in every region. However, it is hard to identify some specific region’s uniqueness with them. Therefore, it is required to sub-divide into ‘section’ and ‘sub-section’ which allow flexibility enabled to retain local inherence In addition to systematic hierarchy (category-division-section-subsection), we need to concern with geographical hierarchy to identify locality at the same time. The hierarchy of geographical scale in Korea is divided into four levels; national, metropolitan and province, city and county (‘si’, ‘gun’, ‘gu’), and town and village (‘eup’, ‘myen’, ‘dong’) levels. As each systematic hierarchy could be coupled with each individual geographical hierarchy in using HGI, both systematic and geographic approaches should be considered at the same time, to identify the locality of some specific regions. Therefore, we would suggest the ‘inter-cross referencing system’ to build national-based HGI services (figure 3).
Figure 3. Inter-cross referencing system for HGI
The procedure of the construction of HGI by region, which is based on the inter-cross referencing system for HGI, is as follows (see figure 4). Firstly, it is required to identify regional characteristics in metropolitan and province levels by investigating basic information on physical, social and culture, and economic environments, which are classified in category in the HGI system. Secondly, items of each division would be extracted from 3 categories in the metropolitan and province level. In final stage, local items of each section would be extracted from 12 divisions divided from categories in the city and county level, which is based on the principle of building HGI system. Consequently, on the inter-cross referencing system for HGI provides some insights into identifying locality, and enables to build the national-based HGI system.
Figure 4. The construction of HGI by region
The main aim of the research is to identify locality in Korea by building the system of classification for HGI services. To this end, we provided the basic principle of HGI selection based on locality, integration, and reliability. Also, the system should come across both systematic and regional approaches, as HGI could be divided into regional information related to local characteristics in various geographical levels and systematic information focused on some specific subjects in accordance with systematic hierarchy. Therefore, we would suggest the ‘inter-cross referencing system’ to build the national-based HGI system by concerning with both systematic and geographic at the same time, to identify the locality of some specific regions.
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