Geospatial technology and its scope of applications have undergone significant change since its advent. It has now been universally accepted as the most important modern tool for mapping and monitoring of various natural resources as well as amenities and infrastructure. The huge and voluminous spatial database generated from various remote sensing platforms needs proper management like storage, retrieval, manipulation and analysis to extract desired information, which is beyond the capability of human brain. This is where the computer-aided GIS technology came into existence. A GIS with major inputs from remote sensing satellites for natural resource management must be able to handle the spatio-temporal data, supporting spatio-temporal quarries and other spatial operations. Software and the computer-based tools are designed to make things easier to the user and to improve the efficiency and quality of information processing tasks. Natural resources are a common heritage which we have shared with the past generations. Our future generation will be inheriting these resources from us. Our greed for resources and our tremendous technological capacity to exploit them at a much larger scale has created a situation where we have started drawing from the future stocks. The petrochemical-rich region Bina has attracted the attention of the planners from the beginning of Five Year Plans for industrial development. A number of projects were carried out in individual districts (Sagar, Vidisha, Guna and Ashoknagar) which also gave fruitful results, but no serious efforts have been made for the entire region. No efforts were made to use geospatial technologies like remote sensing, GIS, GPS to prepare a well structured computerised database without which it is very different to retrieve, analyse and compare data for monitoring as well as for planning the developmental activities in future.
Planning is a widely accepted way to handle complex problems of resources allocation. It involves the use of collective intelligence and foresight to chart direction and make progress in public activities relating to human environment and general welfare. In order to provide more effective and meaningful direction for better planning and development, necessary support of the organizations involved has become essential. Hence the need for suitable information system is increasingly being felt in all planning and developmental activities, whether these are for urban or rural areas.
Urban areas today are more likely described as sprawling regions that have become interconnected in a dendritic fashion (Carlson and Arthur, 2000). The positive aspects of urbanisation have often been overshadowed by deterioration in the physical environment and quality of life caused by the widening gaps between supply and demand for essential services and infrastructure.
Sustainable planning refers to “development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (The Brundtland Commission). This can be achieved by taking care of ecological, social and Economic aspects of development. It includes conservation of resources for the Future generations. Integrated sustainable planning deals with efficient distribution of land use activities, infrastructure and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. Sustainable planning addresses problems of economic, social and political transformations at geographical scales greater than a municipality.
The need for regional planning is seen as filling in the gap between national planning and local planning. It is thus a species of ‘intermediate planning’. Regional planning is “an exercise in persuasion, seeking to encourage those agencies with the power to act and manage regional development, to adopt and use agreed strategies and to follow particular guidance in the interests of achieving identified goals or vision and consensus on net regional benefit” (Glasson in Noble, et. al., 1998).
Therefore, this research work aims to integrate sustainable planning to utilise the potential of both natural and human resources in a sustainable manner and propose alternative systems for regional development of the area using modern geospatial technology in conjunction with conventional technology.
Sustainable development concept
Role of geospatial technology in sustainable planning
Geospatial technology, commonly known as geomatics, refers to technology used for visualisation, measurement and analysis of features or phenomena that occur on earth. Planning and information are closely linked. Information is needed to assist decision making in planning activities. The monitoring of urban and regional development may result in new planning actions. Information is considered as one of the most important elements of settlement planning and activities crucial for the economic, social and environmental advancement of all countries. There have been continuous efforts of improve the database for planning and development of any human settlement. Still there are serious problems regarding availability and organisation of data especially in developing countries.
Modern geospatial technology, based on satellite data and advanced computer technologies is found to be very useful and has potential to generate desired database for planning. Settlement location is spatial in nature. Geographic information at settlement level is used for monitoring and forecasting changes, planning services, managing resources, protecting the public developing properties, etc. In the last two decades, steady growth in information technology has provided planners and other related professionals with new tools to process, analyse and present spatial data.
A map prepared by conventional techniques has several restrictions like:
- Large-scale maps cover an area in many different map sheets
- Retrieval and combination of information is difficult
- There are no frequent updates, which is a problem wherever information (themes) changes fast.
Due to these limitations, spatial analysis is too expensive in terms of time and cost. In this background, geospatial technology is play vital role.
According to Madhya Pradesh Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam Act of 1973, Madhya Pradesh has seven regions. However, due to rapid development of Bina and areas around Sagar district, a new region was formed in 1999 by including Sagar district of Jabalpur forest region and Vidisha district of Bhopal capital region. These four districts – Sagar, Vidisha, Guna and Ashoknagar – become a new region, named as Bina Petrochemical Region. The total geographical area is 28661 sq. km. The region is best accessed by road and rail network. The climate is suitable for agriculture and there is an opportunity to develop the region due to presence of petrochemical and gas plants.
Bina Petrochemical Region lies between the latitudes 23o 0` to 25o 10` N and longitudes 76o 50` to 79o 10` E and covering an area around 28661 sq. km. in four districts of Madhya Pradesh – Sagar, Vidisha, Guna, and Ashoknagar. This region has been selected for the present study. It is covered by 65 Survey of India toposheets.
Location Map of the Research Area
The data was collected both from primary and secondary data sources. The primary data collected was Survey of India toposheets at a scale of 1:50,000 and Indian Remote Sensing satellite (IRS-P6) LISS-IV MX data for the years 2008, and 2009. The secondary data collected included the demographic details (from the primary census for the years 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 from the Directorate of Census Operations, Census of India). Data on groundwater quality, pre- and post- monsoon data on groundwater were collected from Central Groundwater Board (CGWB) and State Groundwater board (SGWB). To study the variation of rainfall, rain depth data was collected from various rain guage stations of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). Drainage maps, road and railway network maps were obtained from the concerned departments. In addition, ancillary data was collected from various reports and publications.
Satellite data used in the present Research
Details of Survey of India Toposheets
Bina Industrial Region Satellite Data
4. Aims and Objectives
Since the 1999 declaration of the area as an industrial region, there has been rapid urbanisation and industrialization in the region. The establishment of Indo-Oman refinery and J.K. power plant at Bina also attracts allied supporting small and large industries in this region. These activities have aggravated unplanned development in the region. To manage the region, sustainable planning is necessary. This study aimed to prepare a sustainable regional plan using geospatial technology in an integrated manner.
The main objectives of the proposed research are as fallowing:
- Evaluation of the resource potential of the area in terms of landuse/landcover.
- Hydro-geomorphological mapping to evaluate water resources of the research area.
- Assessment of facilities and amenities of the research area using geospatial technology.
- Integration and analysis of all above studies by applying standard planning indicators.
5. Proposed methodology
The broad methodology adopted during the present study included terrain characterisation, different thematic maps such as base map, drainage map, geological map, geomorphological map, watershed map, slope map, soil map, groundwater prospect map, landuse/landcover map, population density map, village boundary map, etc). Based on digital analysis of satellite data in conjunction with available ancillary data and ground survey, the thematic maps and relevant information related to the research area will be integrated with GIS using Arc-GIS 9.2 software.
The methodology adopted in the present research is presented schematically in methodology flowchart.
Flowchart of the proposed methodology
CLDU (Composite Land Development Plan)
LRAP (Land Resource Action Plan)
WRAP (Water Resource Action Plan)
HGM (Hydrogeomorphological Map)
GWP (Groundwater Prospects)
Expected outcome of the proposed work
A practical approach in regional planning, directed at preservation, conservation, development, management and exploitation of the natural resources of the region for benefit of the people has to operate within the framework of physical and biological attributes, socio-economic conditions, infrastructure, amenity and facility constructs.
The outcome of present research work is to apply geospatial technology to prepare a sustainable regional plan by applying sustainability models by giving weightage to natural resources, infrastructure, socio-economic conditions, facilities and amenities. The proposed regional plan will address the area for green belt conservation, proposed allocation of land in such a manner as to limit and manage chemical pollution in the drainage systems at both point and non point sources.
Bina Industrial Region is mostly agricultural and 70% of the population is engaged in agriculture activities. In the coming years, rapid urbanisation and growth of urban centres due to industrial establishment will cause migration and population growth in this region. The growing population will need better living conditions and rapid transport system along with facilities for education, health, drinking water and infrastructure. This research will address all the above factors in the regional plan. The plan will address the requirement of land for various purposes for the next 20 years.
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