Identification of levels of availability of facilities: Case study of DehraDun

Identification of levels of availability of facilities: Case study of DehraDun

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Suman Sao
Reader Dept. of Geography & Applied Geography
University of North Bengal 34430 India

Introduction
For healthy and happy living adequate provision of community facilities & public utility services are essential as they provide scope for increase in efficiency and economic utilization of time. In recent years, the urban communities have not been able to obtain all the essential community facilities largely due to the wide gap between the resource availability and optimum resource needed to provide such facilities. Another important factor responsible for the continuation of this wide gap is the perennial influx of rural population to urban centers. This further creates extra burden on the available services & utilities. As per the 1981 and 1991 census the class I town of India increased from 218 to 298, and the total population of these towns increased from 95 million to 139 million. Out of total population of 139 million, about 71 million populations are concentrated in metropolitan cities. One of the major reasons leading to migration to these big cities is the lack of services in the small and medium towns. To restrict this government had already undertaken the IDSMT (Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns) project. Thus in recent years, community facilities & public utility services have been considered as the most essential element in urban life. As the utility & amenity policies & practices have an important bearing upon the rate and direction of urban growth and the pattern of urban development, these facilities & services should be rationally controlled and provided in accordance with the needs of the community.

In order to prepare a development plan for small and medium towns basic information regarding location of existing facilities, their accessibility and development trends, in relation to socio-economic structure of the town is needed. The process of planning for human settlement involves the use of both spatial and non-spatial data. Planners need updated accurate maps and other analytical information to prepare useful development plan. But acquiring data in the conventional way is very time consuming and costly, remote sensing on the other hand provides the means to acquire basic data on urban areas more quickly with less cost on a repetitive basis.

Objectives
The broad aim of the present study is to make an application of remote sensing for generation of spatial data and further, to use GPS technology in the inventory of facilities and services in spatial domain. And to apply GIS to analyse data to prepare planning inputs for the formation of development plan of DehraDun City. The objectives can be listed as follows:

  • To prepare location map of selected urban facilities and services using GPS technology.
  • To identify the service areas of different facilities and services which will be the inputs for preparation of comprehensive development plan of the city.
  • To make an intra urban disparity analysis of selected facilities and services.
  • To identify areas for future expansion and location of selected urban facilities.

Selection of Facilities for Analysis
For a sound study it would have been better to select all kinds of facilities and services required for urban areas but due to time constrain it was not feasible. Hence in the present study only following facilities have been considered. These are Bank, Post Office, Primary School (govt. aided), Secondary School (govt. aided), Health Post, Hospital, Fire Station, Road Transport, Water Supply and Sewerage.

Spatial Analysis
The existing gap between demand and available resource in developing countries makes the attempts to solving the problem of unbalanced distribution of infrastructure services more difficult. This problem necessitates the issue of assessing the exact level of infrastructure services in different areas, to be able to rank them accordingly. This study could be used for the DehraDun Corporation area in providing a methodology, with which to monitor infrastructure provision. The methodology could answer the following specific questions:

  • In which areas the infrastructure lacking is higher and has to be given priority for action?
  • Which aspects should be given priority for improvement?
  • Which sectors are performing properly?

For analysis, population density map and buffer zone maps of facilities are used to find out the number of people being served by the existing utilities & services in DehraDun Corporation area. ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW software have been used for spatial analysis. Buffer zones considered for each type of facility is presented below.

FACILITY BUFFER ZONE
(In meter)
MODE OF TRAVEL
Bank 1000
1500
Walking
,,
Post office 500
1000
,,
,,
Primary School (govt. aided) 500
1000
,,
,,
Secondary School (govt. aided) 1000
2000
,,
Vehicle
Health Post 500
1000
Walking
,,
Hospital 1000
2000
3000
Walking
Vehicle
,,
Bus Stand (long distance) 3000
5000
,,
,,
Local Bus Route 500
1000
Walking
,,
Vikram Route 250
500
,,
,,
Other Roads 100 ,,
Fire Station 5000
10000
Vehicle
,,

Levels of Availability of Facilities
To calculate the wardwise levels of facilities available to the population of DehraDun city indices method has been used with DehraDun’s average being considered as base. Variable weight factor has been used to emphasize the impact of different levels of buffer zones. Results of the analysis are presented in the table, buffer zone maps and map showing aggregate levels of availability of facilities. Following conclusions can be drawn from above mentioned analysis:

Bank: From the location of facility and buffer zone of 1 km, it is observed that Dharmpur Danda, Defence colony, Prempur Mafi and Vijay Vihar are not being served by the facility. However 77.93% of the total population is falling in this buffer zone.

Post Office: From the location and buffer zones it is evident that Dharmpur Danda, Defence colony, Nehru colony east, Prempur Mafi and Pathribag are not being served. Approximately 19% of the population lives in deficit zone.

Primary School (govt. aided): The optimum distance zone is serving less than 50% of the population. However if 1km.distance zone is also considered approximately 72% of the population is being served by the facility. The deficit areas are Majra, Pathribag, Kaonli and Subhsh Nagar.

Secondary School (govt. aided): The optimum distance zone of this facility is severing only 67% of the total population. However if we also include the desirable impact zone of 2 km. an additional 23% of the total population will fall within this limit. The deficit areas are Majra, Subhash Nagar and Doon Vihar. According to UDPFI guideline, for every 7500 population one school is needed with the strength of 1000 students. So the total no of schools required for the city is 67.However as more than one govt. aided schools are running in the same campus decentralization is urgently required. Besides, data in connection with student strength is required for further analysis.

Hospital: Less than 50% of the population fall within the optimum distance zone. However if we consider the influence zone of 3 km. approximately 71% of the total population are being served. Deficit wards are Subhash Nagar, Raipur, Majra, Lakhibag and Prempur Mafi. Besides, Patel Nagar, Dhoran, Kaonli, Doon Vihar and Vijay Vihar fall in moderately deficit zone. A capital city must have a specialized medical institution at the rate of one bed per 1000 population for specialized treatment. But facility in this respect at public sector is lacking.

Health Post: Only 28% of the city population are falling within the optimum distance zone. However if we include the moderately desirable zone also, approximately 65% of the city’s population is being served. The severely deficit areas are Niranjanpur, Dharampur, Dhoran, Subhas Nagar, Kaonli, Hathi Barkala, Rajpur, Doon Vihar, Majra, Shawli Kalan and Prempur Mafi. Moderately deficit zones are Race- course south, Pragti Vihar and Defence colony.

Local Trasnport: To find out the quantum of population being served by the present route of local bus services, 500m.catchment area on both sides from the center of the road has been considered. It is evident from the analysis that only 61% of the population is being served. Rests 39% have the option of two stroke private vehicle, which increases the pollution in urban environment. Approximately 49% of the population has access to one or the other kind of local transportation system within optimum distance zone category. However if the impact of moderately desirable distance zone is also considered additional 28% can be in a position to avail the local transport facilities. Deficit zones are Dalanwala east and Prempur Mafi while moderately deficit ward is Defence colony.

Long Distance Public Transport: If we consider 5km.zone of influence the existing bus stand serves 95% of the population. However only 75% of the population is being served by the 3km buffer zone. Deficit areas are Dhoran, Rajpur and Prempur Mafi.

Other Roads: To find the extent of accessibility and movement, distributor and collector roads have also been considered. Approximately 75% of the population lives within 100m buffer zone of such roads, which shows the high extent of mobility. However, road conditions should also be considered in the analysis, but it has not been considered in the present study due to time constraint.

Fire Station: Almost 40% of the study area has not been covered by the two existing fire stations if 3km optimum influence zone as prescribed by UDPFI guidelines is considered. However, if we consider 5km influence zone then 94.82% of the study area is being covered by the said service.

Aggregate Level of Facilities: For monitoring overall service conditions, which will be helpful in making decisions, such as where to give priority and where improvement programmes may be designated as a ‘package’ so that investment can be simultaneously carried out to improve the whole area to a desirable standard, all the aspects that have been separately analysed, have been combined to get the aggregate availability situation of the infrastructure services in the study area. It is evident that some of the areas are extremely underserved hence fall under above category. These underserved areas can be designated as Prempur Mafi, Dhrampur Danda, Dhoran, Kaonli and Majra. Defence colony and Subhas Nagar are also close to this category.

Conclusion
Present study shows that from the satellite imagery all the facilities may not be located correctly. But a combination of RS products, with use of GPS and GIS techniques provides complete information about urban areas, which are necessary for intergraded development.