Ground water potential and assessment using Geographic Information System

Ground water potential and assessment using Geographic Information System


Jeyram, Y.V.N. Krishna Murthy
Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre, Department of Space, Nagpur.

M.K. Mohabey
Department of Geology, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

S. Adiga
NNRMS-RRSSC, ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore.

The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology in water resource investigation requires the design and development of a methodology to analysis water resource and its components with its complex ecological and socio-economic inter-relationship. It is necessary to translate system dynamics into predictive statements for different spatial and temporal scales. This approach provides enormous scope for better understanding of various water resource components and its relationship elements of watershed eco-system. The proposed work forms part of the custamised application interfaces called “Ground WAter Resource Decision Support System” (GARDSS) developed at Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre, Nagpur. GARDSS is designed and developed in ARC/INFO using Arc Magro Language (AML) mainly for ground water resource potential mapping, resource estimation and to generate sustainable ground water resource development plan.

Uma-Kalhar watershed covering an area of 32290 hectares in northwestern part of Chandrapur district has been selected for the ground water investigations. The watershed experiences unique and diversified ground water conditions where drinking water scarcity exist in agriculture dominated area (lower part of the watershed) and ground water favorable condition occur in forest lands. The thematic maps of lithology, landforms, structures, land use/land cover, recharge, depth to water table, depth to hard rock, well yield, rainfall and socio-economic parameters have been generated on 1: 50,000 scale using IRS LISS III satellite data and other collateral information and put as standardised database in ARC/INFO. Ground water potential model has been developed based on Index overlay method using hierarchical weightage. Depending upon the perceived importance of maps and its classes, hierarchical weightages are accepted as map score and class score. The interface generates ground water potential map with five potential classes. Ground water reserve estimation GIS model is tasted on Ground Water Estimation Committee (GREC) which estimate phreatic ground water reserve. Static ground water reserve and dynamic reserve calculation have been done separately.