Dr. Srichand Busi PhD
Business & Information Branch
Department of Lands
This paper introduces persons in fields directly linked with country and town planning to the scope, subject another challenge, and opportunities of comprehensive application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on public planning only a small part of comprehensive GIS application on public planning theory can covered in this paper. To be through and complete on a subject that is now so extensive that would require many bundles of volumes. In this paper I have complied the use of GIS and its use and necessity in public planning to and for the intermediate future sustainability.
In this article, the most critical requirement in the selection of readings and references was clear and succinct coverage of the subject matter to be included often this was found in articles from periodicals or other short publications because they usually condense essential subject matter in the least space. Naturally, the different divisions of the paper reflect my (author) view of comprehensive public planning theory-using GIS, which has resulted from my little experience planning for nation, region, city or a large corporation.
I acknowledge to Kenneth E. Foote & Margaret Lynch, who are participating in GIS research project at Department of Geography, University of Colorado, at Boulder, under the title of “The Geographers Craft”, for their valuable material on GIS applications, and also I acknowledged Environmental Systems Research Institute, at California for providing good reference material from their Web.
“Information is power and the basic ingredient of the social organism”
Micro level planning is a part of decentralised process and gained significance where hierarchy of functions and their inter relationships at various levels in the context of overall development strategy could become possible with spatial and sectoral approaches. The spatial approach aims at identifying the spatial distribution and utilisation of local resources which are essentially required for fulfilling the felt-needs of the people and identifies the distribution parterres of the existing and required infrastructure so as to reduce the imbalance in the development perspective of the regions. The sectional approach attempts to adopt suitable measures to generate economic growth as an aggregate. The integration of both spatial and sectoral planning can bring objective development at the grassroot level (V. Madhava Rao & Rejeinder R Hermon, 1998).
A nation social fastened depends on that nation’s economic status, nation’s resources (natural and un-natural), their organisation, and developmental programmes. The well known nation, the Republic of India as “the uterus of gems” from the ancient time, which have completed 60 years of independence, though the country has not stood along with the developed countries on the globe, for this what the cause, is the fault of path of particularise or the lack of prescribed determination, for this we have lot of necessity to re-assume ourselves. If the way back into the pages of post Independence period, for the creation of resources and spread it as over the spatial distribution planning commission was set up in the year of 1950, which was the only a advisory committee for recommended various projects, but without the responsible for their implementation.
Basically the Planning Commission was set by the following duties:
- To assessing the total natural resources and human resources.
- To develop the resources which are in availability.
- To identify the obstacles which are making the problems in country’s development.
- To identify the various sectors according to their rate of high productivity through the various plans.
- To develop the fast successive plans in the order of evolution.
- To consider the nations social, economic, situation and to make the recommendations compiled with various magnitudes.
If we have observed the Indian planning, we can’t visualise the way of leadership with right decisions, with a right approach this could be because, lack of right information system in a right path. For example in first five year plan 1, 960 Cr. were allotted (In the beginning the total amount declared as 2, 069 Cr., but because of some reasons this amount was reduced). In this plan in the order of importance, 647 Cr. were invested on irrigation & power projects, in the second order of importance 354 Cr. were invested on agriculture and in he third order 188 Cr. were invested on industrial sector and minerals excavation.
In these first five-year plan national incomes was grown upto 19.3%, and during this period for every year (1951-56) 3.5% growth rate greater than earlier year. Likewise in the second five year plan, the rate of agriculture was 568 Cr., irrigation and power sector rate 931 Cr. and industrial sector having 890 Cr., what the here observable thing is, in the second plan increased the amount on industrial sector than the first plan with the rate of 702 Cr. According Prithwish Kumar Roy, Somanath Mukerjee, 1994 “The major strategy followed in this plan was not very clear, but agricultural development taken as a way out for future industrial development. But what the important thing in both the plans the policy makers given the highest priority to economic achievement than the social achievement. Its may be, during that period agricultural is may important, but in thought of policy makers they concentrated on to develop the industrial sector through by achieve the high productivity, and that policy makers ignore the importance of to develop the social intelligence. This may be occurred due to lack of information economy. Above-mentioned issues are only examples for what the nations like India having present status.
From the global view, the second biggest and largest continent of Africa, which is occupies the 28% land on the globe. Since the land is the basic ingredient for the food, water, fuels, fibber, and for the shelter. The land of Africa is the home of enormous, endowed of abundant natural resources, and have great capacity to export to, other countries, but still now the land of human origin spends their annual income of 90%. For food to import from other countries. According to many of the scholars, international organisations the lack of information on availability location and distribution of natural resources and the capability to monitor the progress and impact of development projects is the single most important weakness in the effort of Africa to develop. (Potter, 1969; Masser, 1974; maboganje, 1978; Ouedraogo, 1980; kalensky et al., 1980; Hood, 1982; barrett, 1982; Baxter and Ouedraogo, 1983; Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985).
Within the last two decades many African countries have embarked on the importation of fertiliser in a bid to increase agricultural productivity. New crop varieties have been introduced. Several irrigation projects have been (and are being) established, new housing and urban planning models have been tried. Since all these have largely taken place without comprehensive, spatial, and compatible temporal resource information, several of the projects have failed (e.g. the famous East African groundnut scheme, the Gambian poultry scheme, the Mokwa project and the farm settlement schemes in Nigeria) (Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985).
Over the years, much system of policies and planning have been implemented by many governmental organisations at great cost, and only to end up being disappointing or under-utilised and failing to meet the organisations’ expectations. How does this happen? Is there a common reason why governmental decisions don’t always work? Indeed. Most often, lack of planning is the culprit.
“Nossain (1982), the growth of knowledge depends on the progress in the collection of data and the generation of information.” All over the world, many country managers and policy makers make strategic decisions on infrastructure development and maintenance, to achieve the sustainable development in all ways. In many nations in developing region they also have to respond to specific pressers, such as rapid population growth and an expansion, rapid industrial development, pressure on environment, various productivity of agricultural sector, unequal climatic conditions, un planned spatial distribution of investments and many. Yet rarely do they have access to up-to date base-maps and systematic information on the extent and de-extent of above-mentioned issues. A reliable information base is essential for successful nation management and strategic decision making. Lack of information contributes to problems such as ineffective nation development programs and activities; un-economical and badly planned investment projects; poor functioning of various sectors of the country and various utility systems; and disregard of the country development badly impact of on the people of nation.
“Information on the other hand, refers to data (about objects, things or areas) that have been organised and processed. In this context knowledge (about objects, things or areas) because ordered information (Peter O. Adeniyi, 1985).”
All the above statements tells the any countries development depends on their human and information about various resources and its utilisation, which process is motivated by the that countries science & technology. According to UN conference on science & technology for development, which was held in 1979,August in Vienna (Austria). “Developed countries continue to dominate the field of science and technology to the extent that around 95% of all research and development are executed by them, while developing countries, which represent 70% of the population of the world, have only abut 5% of the world’s research and development” (UN document 1982 A/CONF, 101/10,P. 3).
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & ITS EVOLUTION:
If we have way back into the origin of the human society, while humanbeing and other animals created by the Almighty God, all the animals are still living as herd compared man in a some specific unchangeable manner. But, man didn’t like that, he was formed, he is forming, and he going to form himself as different herds. As an Aristotle said, an ancient Greek philosopher ” Human Wants are Unlimited”, the man invented new things for their better living in the nature and survive from the nature he was formed as different groups of primary, secondary, and territory groups. All the groups of activities correlated to each other, but the communicable thing is different, because every expert group having some specific technical work, which is not understandable to alien groups, but all the function of all the gropes, interlined. So, too over come this problem some specific object to communicate each other. In a prior day the man depends on various interchangeable methods like signals with his organism, in later time he was used the doves as messenger, writings on stone sculpture, and travelling simultaneously noted those things in their books. But, this is very horable and time eating process.
Table 1 The Three Stages of Civilisation
Man has gone through three stages as above stated. Perhaps the words ” gone through” may be misleading as agriculture and industry certainly as agriculture and industry certainly go on through we are supposed to be in the information age. So, these stated to be periods of emphasis or focus on agriculture industry or information with their own particular characteristics. (National Institute of Information Technology, 1996.).
There are broadly two schools . . . the first, corresponding to orthodox management practice, declares that a study of [sufficient] information will reveal patterns and trends in the data, which will enable experienced managers to feed instructions back to the situation through its input loop – and thus modify its behaviour. The second school of thought, corresponding roughly to the position of operational research is more realistically aware of the magnitude of the problem. It says that the human brain cannot cope with all this information, and that the thing to do is to create an analytic model of what is going on. (Stafford Beer, Decision and Control, The meaning of Operational Research and Management Cybernetics, New York (Wiely), p. 277 & Urban Planing Theory (D. H Rose & Inc, 1975; p. 176).
Ida R. Hoos, discussing about the informatics, there is an unmistakable tendency on the part of public planners from county to federal levels to assume, since their mandate is to “plan rationally”, that their first and primary need in order to discharge this obligation, is a management information system. Implicit in this persuasion is a set of a priorities: (1) If, as public planners, they had more information, they would make better plans and perhaps arrive at better decisions; (2) more and faster moving information would improve the “efficiency” of governmental operations, (3) greater “efficiency would better serve the needs of the community in particular and society at large and (4) the designed of information system is a technical matter and best assigned to an “information expert” whose movable talent is almost universally applicable.
The wealth of human being depends on the application of science and technology for produce, transformation, and monitoring their surround system (natural & un-natural) for the stabilised manner. In the present situation because of rapid economic transformation of the society the new crises are increased along with new decisions of policy and technology on every nation on the globe. The every nation on the globe growing with the different unique functions and characteristic the country grows not only in one character or function. So, on that many country planners from the different sectors trying to make right plans from the beginning. For the any right decisions and policy on country plan a certain and accurate information is required on any function, feature and field for this, a system of unique function is required and essential.
In geography, many innovations in the application of information technologies began in the late 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s. Methods of sophisticated mathematical and statistical modelling were developed and the first remote sensing data became available. Researchers began also to envision the development of geographic information systems. The mid-1970s to early 1990s was a period of contagion. The first commercially available software for GIS became available in the late 1970s and spurred many experiments, as did the development of the first microcomputers in the early 1980s. This was an exciting time in which the development of powerful software coupled with the availability of inexpensive computers permitted many researchers to test new ideas and applications for the first time. In the early 1990s, or perhaps just a bit earlier, many innovations entered the co-ordination phase even as other experimentation continued at a fast pace. The strengths and weaknesses of many information technologies were by then apparent, and researchers began to work together to cultivate the most promising applications on a large scale. Arguably, the complete integration of information technologies in geography has yet to be achieved except perhaps in a few relatively specialised research areas. Complete integration across the discipline may, in fact, be many years away (Kenneth E. Foote and Margaret Lynch, 1995). From the beginning of early 70’s most of the countries of the world concentrate on the space technology of Geographic Information systems GIS), after the step down of American Astronaut Mr. Neel Armstrong on Moon in 1968.
This study focuses on the use of GIS in monitoring and planing the country development strategic-aspects of economic distribution (investment) on various sectors, population growth and land use planning, environmental monitoring, rural and urban development, utilities planning and development, studies on macro and micro economic planning and administrative decisions, criminal and social justice, industrial and commercial purpose, defence purpose, ocean management, drought area monitoring and planning, to increase agriculture productivity, pollution control, planning and monitoring, and so many. A core concept overlaying all these issues is that the term GIS and its uses. Regarding the country planning in these way areas, among other things that many more data sets can be used to investigate the matters of nations development than is customarily assumed and that Remote Sensing and GIS has the important role to play in processing and integration of such data and planning. The scope of policies and the ange of data generated for strategic country planning is best understand in specific institutional contexts. This study introduces successful planning for a nation through a GIS implementation on various sectors. It focuses on a proven planning methodology, rather than on vendor specific systems.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS):
Clarks (1986) states, Geographic Information System (GIS) is powerful computerised information system for spatial data referenced by the geographic co-ordinates. Geographic Information System is a set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving (at will), transforming and displaying spatial data form the real world for particular purpose. It may also be elaborated as on computational information system for spatial data and is designed to acquire, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyse and display data according to users defined specifications.
Map production and handling are increasingly being computerised. The allows dynamic and flexible handling of map information in a manner comparable to the way word processing systems deal with written information. There are many computer software systems available to handle maps and other spatial data. Among the various terms used to characterise the different types, one is Geographic information system (GIS). (Parker, 1988, Cowen 1988; Fisher and Lindberg, 1989; Bengt Paulson, 1992).
“A geographic information system is a facility for preparing, presenting, and interpreting facts that pertain to the surface of the earth. This is a broad definition . . . a considerably narrower definition, however, is more often employed. In common parlance, a geographic information system or GIS is a configuration of computer hardware and software specifically designed for the acquisition, maintenance, and use of cartographic data”(C. Dana Tomlin, 1990).
A GIS is “an organised collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyse, and display all forms of geographically referenced information” (Environmental Systems Research Institute, 1990).
Definition quoted in William Huxhold, 1991, . . . The purpose of a traditional GIS is first and foremost spatial analysis. Therefore, capabilities may have limited data capture and cartographic output. Capabilities of analyses typically support decision making for specific projects and/or limited geographic areas. The map data-base characteristics (accuracy, continuity, completeness, etc) are typically appropriate for small-scale map output. Vector and raster data interfaces may be available. However, topology is usually the sole underlying data structure for spatial analyses.
Geographic Information System is a comprehensive system of software and hardware tool to merge a nonspatial data (which is nothing but he attribute data) to with spatial georeferenced data for the obtaining meaningful information which s useful to the urban planing and management “It helps to avoid redundancy by using the relevant data and spatial features reduce cost in terms of time, storage and production of out, improves standardisation and identified information gaps, relevant for better allocation of resource and allocation mapping (V.Madhava Rao and Rajendra R Hermon, 1998).
Srichand, Busi, 2000, states, Geographic Information System is a kit of organised unique collection of software, hardware, geographic referenced data for built the model for spatial as store, update, manipulate, analyse and draw a plans on various fields it may be urban studies, regional planning, environmental, geological, botanical, biological, business, infrastructure studies what it not, for control the spatial organisation through display the geographical referenced information.
The connection of spatial characteristics with numerical data of socio-economic, demographic and natural resources are the parameters for any decision-making and plans. The geographic Information System has great capabilities to display of virtual reality of specific region or area of present situation from the side of socio-econoic, demographic, and natural resources in the form of valuable data along with maps. For any decision making and planning the reliable and accurate data is nessary and essential. The development of technology of computer in the form of hardware and software and its cost effectiveness has made the Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) for taking the right decision- making and planning. The success of any plan depends on the availability of qualitative and quantitative data, which can be made by the RS and GIS.
The Geographic Information System is tool to analyse the spatial problem of any region to make the solution. A fully functioning of Geographic Information System is involves the creation and storage of spatial referenced data and its related attributes. Analysis is performed on the spatial data stored within the GIS which is can generates from administrative and topographical maps and satellite imageries. Take the georeference data in the form of both maps and attribute and established logical connection between the data elements, which are needed to create the information on any planning process, which we need.
GIS can put the into a strategic system in which the data and the places on the maps that the data represents are directly linked.
Can perform an analysis.
And, produced the information which is required to our study and planning and development.
The fundamental idea of GIS is that spatial data is put into the system where it is stored so that it can be using system functions to produce information (Roger Tomlinson, 2001).
Spatial data have physical dimensions, such as a lake, a road, or a standpipe. The dimensions tell where the objects are. But geographical objects also have nonspatial attributes like ownership, surface material, and age, and these tell us what the objects are. In a GIS both kinds of information, together with information on the relationships between them, are used to analyse the data, model future scenarios, make predictions, and reach conclusions. An unlimited number of maps can be stored and analysed together through overlaying. Thus complex questions, such as the following one, can be answered: Which land parcels are at least two hectares large, in commercial zone, vacant for sale, not subject to flooding not more than a kilometre from a heavy-duty and have no slope over 10 percent? (Bengt Paulsson, 1992).
Many disciplines can benefit from GIS techniques. An active GIS market has resulted in lower costs and continual improvements in the hardware and software components of GIS. These developments will, in turn, result in a much wider application of the technology throughout government, business, and industry.
Maps have traditionally been used to explore the Earth and to exploit its resources. GIS technology, as an expansion of cartographic science, has enhanced the efficiency and analytic power of traditional mapping. Now, as the scientific community recognises the environmental consequences of human activity, GIS technology is becoming an essential tool in the effort to understand the process of global change. Various map and satellite information sources can be combined in modes that simulate the interactions of complex natural systems.
Through a function known as visualisation, a GIS can be used to produce images – not just maps, but drawings, animations, and other cartographic products. These images allow researchers to view their subjects in ways that literally never have been seen before. The images often are equally helpful in conveying the technical concepts of GIS study subjects to non-scientists.
A Virtual reality view of GIS:
GIS provide powerful tools for addressing geographical and environmental issues. Consider the schematic diagram below. Imagine that the GIS allows us to arrange information about a given region or city as a set of maps with each map displaying information about one characteristic of the region. In the case below, a set of maps that will be helpful for urban transportation planning have been gathered. Each of these separate thematic maps is referred to as a layer, coverage, or level. And each layer has been carefully overlaid on the others so that every location is precisely matched to its corresponding locations on all the other maps.
The bottom layer of this diagram is the most important, for it represents the grid of a location reference system (such as latitude and longitude) to which all the maps have been precisely registered.
Once these maps have been registered carefully within a common location reference system, information displayed on the different layers can be compared and analysed in combination. Transit routes can be compared to the location of shopping malls, population density to centres of employment. In addition. single locations or areas can be separated from surrounding locations, as in the diagram below, by simply cutting all the layers of the desired location from the larger map. Whether for one location or the entire region, GIS offers a means of searching for spatial patterns and processes.
Not all analyses will require using all of the map layers simultaneously. In some cases, a researcher will use information selectively to consider relationships between specific layers. Furthermore, information from two or more layers might be combined and then transformed into a new layer for use in subsequent analyses. This process of combining and transforming information from different layers is sometimes called map “algebra” insofar as it involves adding and subtracting information. If, for example, we wanted to consider the effects of widening a road, we could begin with the road layer, widen a road to its new width to produce a new map, and overlay this new map on layers representing land use. (Kenneth E. Foote and Margaret Lynch, 1995).
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS VS PUBLIC PLANNING, MONITORING & COMMAND:
The allure of a bankful of data, available on command, is practically irresistible to the public administrator. The data bade has come to be regarded as the keystone of the art of planing and the arch of learning as well (Ida R. Hoos, 1975).
Here, I have described the examples on role of GIS to organise the public planning from governmental systems. Any region or country multidimensional development on that that region’s or country’s geographical related information, resources and its organisation.
In Andhra Pradesh State if we observe the West Godavari district, which is situated coastal Andhra Pradesh, this district can devised as three geographical parts they are 1. River Godavari channels area, which is situated in Southeast and eastern part, 2. Kolleru lake area which is in the central part of district, and 3. Reddy Seema, which is situated in northern part of district.
Among these the Godavari channel area is more developed as socially and economically comparatively with remaining parts of district. And in the order of sequence the Reddy Seema region is in second position and, the Kolleru lake area is in third position. But, 1982 decenial period, the Kolleru lake area was turned it as new economic status which was in third position, though this area get the economical status (in the agricultural sector under the Aqua culture) than the social status. And from the other side, what the observable thing is the Godavari Channel area attracted by the sudden development of Lake Area people economic status this situation happening to converting their farmland into fish tanks. And in Reddy Seema region from the prior days they attracted by the life style of Godavari channel region people, they have concentrated on wet cultivation, which land are belongs to land irrigated not artificially. Because of this result stabilised development is going because un-stabilised situations from as socially and economically.
As I told earlier, the region development depends on that regions geographical conditions and political effectiveness. Because of, as above mentioned real examples from West Godavari district the eastern and south-eastern part of Godavari district many farm lands are converted into aqua culture, in the central part of district because of largely spreader aqua cultivation the lake of Kolleru and its environs going to encroachments and decay, and form the other view in the Reddy Seema many farmers are losing economically because of maintaining the wet cultivation. Any region development is only possible with, through if achieve the equal magnitudes production.
Here I have mentioned the problems of West Godavari district to solve through integrated GIS technology. Before taking development programme of any region, the information on geography, social status, and economic status is very important. Among these information geographical data has derives from various topographical maps and satellite imageries, soil and economic information derives from census registers, economic tables in the stages of primary and secondary sources. Now we see how the GIS technology use to developed the any region or country.
The examples are cited with a GIS question and answers are given hinting the layers required and the methodology to stimulated the analytical mind of the reader. From the examples it can be concluded that GIS is useful to the systems of public.
Q 1. What is the extent of farmlands (wet cultivation, aqua cultivation land not irrigated artificial,) in West Godavari district? Reply the question through a map and furnish a statistics of the extent of lands under various activities West-Godavari district
Insinuate: For wet cultivation
Required Layers: 1. Wet cultivation lands, 2. Administration boundary showing wet cultivation land.
Methodology: Overlay the both layers and list the PAT. Remove unnecessary fields and print the PAT after required manipulation plot required map in ARCPLOT
Insinuate: For land not irrigated artificially.
Required Layers: 1. Land irrigated artificially 2. Administration boundary showing land irrigated artificially.
Methodology: Overlay the both layers and list the PAT. Remove unnecessary fields and print the PAT after required manipulation plot required map in ARCPLOT.
Insinuate: For Aqua cultivation.
Required Layers: 1. Aqua cultivation land, 2. Administration boundary showing land under aqua cultivation.
Methodology: Overlay the both layers and list the PAT. Remove unnecessary fields and print the PAT after required manipulation plot required map in ARCPLOT.
Q 2. The district administration wants to secure all the farmlands under wet cultivation under its control within 1000 Km from the river Godavari, which are converting into aqua cultivation. What’s the map of these areas? Bring it out a tabular statistics of these areas falling in each farmland (wet cultivation)?
Require Layers: 1. River Godavari channel layer, 2. Farmland (wet cultivation) layer, 3. Aqua cultivation land layer.
Methodology: A. Buffer the river Godavari layer and later overlay it on the, overlaid `map of wet cultivated land and aqua cultivated land.
B. List the PAT of the output coverage and remove unnecessary fields. Look at the perimeter of required polygons and find it out the how much land of wet cultivation turn into aqua cultivation.
Q 3. Aqua farmers are entered into Kolleru lake interim part to extend their aqua forms, through over cross the government limits for this to estimate and control the encroachments of Kolleru lake area from the aqua cultivation the government like to take a decision to delineate the aqua culture within the government limit of 150 km around the lake area.
Required Layers: 1. Aqua cultivated land layer, 2. Kolleru Lake layers with government limit of 150 km of a surrounding area.
Methodology: A. Buffer the Kolleru lake layers and overlay it on the aqua cultivated land layer
B. List the PAT of the output coverage and remove unnecessary fields. Look at the perimeter of required polygons and find it out the how much land of Kolleru lake area turn into aqua cultivation.
Note; Here we can estimate the how much of Kolleru lake area was and is encroached by the aqua cultivation during some specific time period. For example ten years of period of 1982-1992.
Q 4. To estimate the economic status of people per sqkm of Kolleru lake area to permit the new licences for new Aqua cultivation the government like to take the decision according to the growth rate of economic density of that area, to study over through the 20 years of period time.
Require Layers: 1. Total area map layer of Kolleru lake surrounding, 2. Density map of total investment map layer.
Methodology: Overlay the both layers and list the PAT. Remove unnecessary fields and print the PAT after required manipulation plot required map in ARCPLOT.
Q 5. The government like to know howmuch of land is converring into non conventional cultivation from their traditional cultivation methods viz., wet cultivated land into aqua cultivation, and, land irrigated artificially into wet cultivated farm methods, how much land is converted into aqua cultivation form the side river Godavari channel.
Required Layers: 1. Wet land cultivation layer, 2. Aqua cultivation layer, 3. Land irrigated artificial layer, and 3.
Administration boundary layer with various district segments of West Godavari as separates layers for micro economic study.
Methodology: Overlay all the layers each and every layer together and list the PAT. Remove unnecessary fields and print the PAT after required manipulation plot required map in ARCPLOT.
What I have mentioned above is for creating the concept to make a good planning decisions and in general that is true what is goings in West Godavari district.
The data flow and hardware configuration for a combined monitoring and GIS is shown in Figure 4. The illustrated system is a rather complex example implanted as a multi-user, client server configuration. As an interim of following system architecture, the figure also demonstrates how many functions may be involve in a GIS based monitoring system.
RIGHT SYSTEM FOR RIGHT PLANNING:
I have given here some illustration with some examples of small stories to better understand. Once upon a time at Madras a person named Nayar who had great enthusiasm to construct a house for his family. For that he make his arrangements to construction, for that he make big ceremony on the occasion of laying founding stone with out make proper arrangements such sufficient of money and material. After constructing half of the house he was faced scarcity of money, for that he borrow of his colleagues. In time being he get old age that time he unable to repaid money as well as incomplete his house and stooped at the half position.
What you can get form this small story, Nayar start his construction of house without a prior planning and without a good bank balance. Like this situation make the man troubles. Let me tell you about Nayar, a person who hadn’t worked out a good planing for his lovely house. Nayar started his house construction without knowing what kind of planning he requires. He has some choices to make. Actually in front of him there was a several options to built a good house, after his retirement, through a bank lone, or make a good bank deposits through make thrift. But, he make his step to built house for his family without a above ways this may be because of insufficient of knowledge abut future effects, false prestige about surrounding society and etc., because of this reasons he was faced many problems. For these problems again he make the another several barrows. Think of justification-our administrators and policy makers and planners all trained and knowing ever on this system, all we need to do is double our computing power, our databases are already in this format, and so on. People have bought built houses, and more houses and more.
They’ve bought the wrong GIS and more wrong GIS and more wrong GIS. In the end, you’ve got to know what you want to get out of a system and what functionality you need before you can choose the right system for the job. If you’re coming into a system later on, a system you’ve inherited, it’s the same thing. What do you want to get out of it?
AREAS OF APPLICATION:
GIS are now used extensively in government, business, defence and research for a wide range of applications including environmental systems, tax appraisal, resource analysis, land use planning, urban studies, location analysis, utility and infrastructure planning, real estate analysis, marketing and demographic analysis, habitat studies, and archaeological analysis, tourism development and maintenance, studies on social justice through criminal analysis, micro economic studies and regional planning, pollution controlling, transpiration networking, to estimate the census operations etc.,
One of the first major areas of application was in natural resources management, including management of
- wildlife habitat,
- wild and scenic rivers,
- recreation resources,
- Assessment of grass and forest fire damages.
- Measure timber acreage.
- Determination of vegetation stress.
- Cartographic mapping and map updating.
- Categorising of land capability.
- agricultural lands,
One of the largest areas of application has been in facilities management. Uses for GIS in this area have included
- locating underground pipes and cables,
- balancing loads in electrical networks,
- planning facility maintenance,
- Tracking energy use.
Local, state, and federal governments have found GIS particularly useful in land management. GIS has been commonly applied in areas like
- Classification of land uses.
- zoning and subdivision planning,
- land acquisition,
- Assessing the Urban growth.
- environmental impact policy,
- water quality management,
- Maintenance of ownership.
- To maintain the Citizen Index Database
- Agricultural Development
More recent and innovative uses of GIS have used information based on street-networks. GIS has been found to be particularly useful in
- address matching,
- location analysis or site selection,
- Development of evacuation plans.
The range of applications for GIS is growing, as systems become more efficient, more common, and less expensive.
And many application on…
Mapping and monitoring of water pollution.
Monitoring environmental effects of man’s effects.
Assessing the drought impact.
Siting for power plants and other industrial and their impacts on surrounding environs.
Determination of water boundaries and surface water areas.
Mapping of floods and flood plains.
Determination of real extent of snow and ice.
Delineated of irrigated fields.
Much too often the use of GIS for pubic planning through monitoring the regional obstacles is produced the presentation of data and generate the beautiful maps, which can also to certain extent be used as a flow of programming tool for user interfaces. Geographic Information Systems are used to a much smaller degree as an active component of public planning systems. As the field matures it is to be expected that public system monitoring with GIS will become much more closely integrated. At the same time, GIS are becoming more and more use friendly, making them much more relevant as tools for non GIS experts such as administrators, and policy makers.
- Bengt Paulsson, (1992), “Urban Applications of satellite remote Sensing and GIS Analysis”, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
- Cowen, ID. (1988), “GIS versus CAD versus DBMS: What Are the Differences?” Photogrametric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54(11).
- D.R.F. Taylor, (1985), “Education and Training in Contemporary Cartography”, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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