Rakesh Kumar Thakur
Uttar Pradesh Bhumi Sudhar Nigam, Government of U.P.
T C 19/V, Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow-226010
Email: [email protected]
Uttar Pradesh has about 1.29 million hectares (ha) land affected mainly due to water-induced land degradation (salinisation, sodification, groundwater depletion) and loss of soil fertility with the sustained removal of nutrients associated with more intensive cropping and inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilisers. UP Bhumi Sudhar Nigam (UPBSN) has undertaken UP Sodic Lands Reclamation Project with the financial assistance from the World Bank, European Economic Countries and the Netherlands. This project is being implemented in 15 districts of UP, where the soil is severely affected by high salt concentration.
The selected districts (Fig-1.) are: Allahabad, Aligarh, Etah, Etawah, Fatehpur, Hardoi, Mainpuri, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Sultanpur in World Bank Scheme with the reclamation targets have been setout as 1,50,000 ha for the follow-up project starting from year 1999-2000. In the initial project (1993-2001) some 68800 ha salt affected land would be reclaimed. Other districts Kanpur, Unnao, and Jaunpur have been selected under EEC and Azamgarh and Buland Sahar under Indo-Dutch scheme.
Cadastral Level: Initially the maps are containing basic features of a Village like village and plot boundary (Khasara), metal road and chak road etc. Extensive topographical survey is carried out in these villages using modern technology (total station), gathering information on location of main drains, link drains, tank, culvert/ bridge, slope etc. and data is stored in a device called memory card. Later these features are transferred into computer.
Fig 1: Districts with high salt concentration under different schemes
Taking few common points on base map, entire surveyed data is super imposed on it. By utilising these modern technology planing of On Farm Development (OFD) activities becomes easier. Keeping in view of ridge and valley line drainage and irrigation network is planed and considering slope aspect boring sites are proposed at higher elevation. Many other parameters like depth and thickness of available acquifer, water table, water quality, fluctuation of water table and EC etc. are also consider for the selection of boring sites. Now the plan map of a village is ready for execution. Upto this stage total process is taken care by GIS and its associate packaings.
On the other side, village base line, plot details and progressive data of these villages, already stored, will regularly be updated in Management Information System (MIS). As per plan, the information would be used in GIS application as common field is defined in both the database. Connecting these two different types of information system a interfacing software Data Direct ODBC Driver is used. All the features are joined with their related database in ArcView GIS. At this stage entire system is ready for data analysis, query, visual presentation and reporting. Arc View GIS has a strong features to take care of all these activities. Final outputs have been given in Fig-2.
Fig 2: Cadastral Map- Map Showing Water User Group formation in a Village
Farmers (project beneficiary) were impressed upon with such visual presentations. Later on the entire system would be transferred to concerned project district for further analysis and report generation. So far 20 project villages are digitised and more than 3000 have to be digitised.
Topographical Level: Under the project Survey of India (SoI) Topo-sheet maps of all the districts 1:50,00 Scale has been digitized. At each project district, which contains an average 15,000 ha of Sodic area, villages have been selected for reclamation in different years. In order to monitor ground water level in the sites 45-50 observation wells have been identified besides 5 to 10 peizometers /site. Pre and post monsoon water level measurements are recorded from these observation well.
On the basis of water level data obtained from these hydrographic station, pre and post monsoon water level contour are being generated. Validation of these data also done with historical data obtained from Central Ground Water Board, besides additional information regarding depth and thickness of available acquifer and water quality are also being integrated. This is helping in determining the suitable site of construction of STWs in the project area. Zonation of depth to water is helping in identifying shallow and deep water table areas, which is being used for demarcating areas for intercepting drain and suitable areas for horticulture where water level should be more than 2 mts below ground water. This also help in monitoring the behavior of water table over a period of time, and effect of tubewell on ground water region.
For the administrative point of view UPBSN has digitized all the Project Districts map which contains Tehsil and Block Boundary with their HQ location, Village Boundary of selected villages, all major Roads, Drains, and Rivers, etc. Details of basin region, catchment, sub-catchment and watershed features are also transferred from ‘Watershed Atlas of India’. On the basis of village base line data villages where Panchayat Bhawan and connecting roads are not developed/available are identify and marked on district map.
To make effective impact on project monitoring & implementation circle plan of each project district has been prepared. In this plan each district divided into 3 Project Manager (PM) unit, and each PM unit has 5 sub-units headed by Deputy Manager (DM) and each sub-unit has 4 circle posted Assistant Manager (AM). All field activities are closely supervised by AM.
Presently utility of GIS/RS is being used in following activities:
- To identify location of specific village/area of interest, which satisfy suitable conditions for selection, based on specific parameters;
- To identify pre and post monsoon water level and fluctuation data; below ground level as well as with respect to mean sea level for defining spring level and flow direction;
- Loose or close coupling with GIS of simulation models of salt movement in the soil profile and ground water column;
- Zonation of Depth of ground water and delineation of shallow water table area;
- IRS LISS II/LISS III based project durability evaluation and integration with GIS;
- Evaluation of land use changes, soil quality, ground water level and quality reclamation over a period of time;
- To locate suitable boring site and pumpset installation;
- To existing drainage and canal status and future planning to drainage development;
- To identify the catchment area of a drain;
- Integration of spatial and non-spatial data.
At present GIS setup is installed at HQ, equipped with PC Based Arc/Info, ArcView 3.1, PC TIN and AutoCad 13 software which are running on Pentium 120/400 machines. A0 size digitizer and a Plotter is being used as an input and output device respectively. Two total stations are being used for survey work. Upgradation of GIS platform (NT based) is under process. Remote Sensing/Image processing services are being taken from U.P. Remote Sensing Application Centre (UPRSAC), Lucknow.
Presently source maps (cadastral) on 1:4000, are being used, supplied by Department of Revenue. These maps are very old and have no projection system. UP RSAC has taken some initiative in this direction. Procurement of GPS under process which will be used to transfer cadastral level information to 1:5,000 scale map.
Digitisation of Cadastral maps (approximately 3000) and various other type of data related to Ground Water, Agriculture and Irrigation, which are available on record, would be computerised and transformed into GIS for the project use. Efforts are being made to tie up with Department of Revenue for digitisation of cadastral maps. UPBSN has a large MIS data for all the villages selected for reclamation including village base line, beneficiary base line, plot wise soil analysis and post reclamation soil quality etc. integration of all relevant data would be the main objective of UPBSN.
Under the on going U.P. Sodic Land Project, environmental monitoring data can be integrated on GIS platform for analysis and evaluation of sustainbility of reclamation selection of project villages, post reclamation monitoring and behavioural changes in ground water levels and quality.