Dr. Ing. Ass.Prof. and Head of Department of Geodesy and Surveying,
IAV Hassan 2, Rabat, Morocc
Land and its resources have been the basis of wealth. Humankind has generated much interest over several years to develop suitable forms and rational methods of administrating and managing land.
A multitude of emerging technologies has been created to enhance describing and valuating all land related resources. The geographical information systems denoted GIS aided to modern management approaches contribute in setting up a core strategy that meets decision maker as well as user requirements. The current paper addresses the impact of implementing GIS applications serving the society and leading to a homogeneous Land Information System. It also discusses many challenges facing their use and their role in ensuring many potential benefits.
A wonder change towards Internet GIS
The information technology is affecting our behaviour and promoting an astonishing change in the society. New technologies are emerging such as Internet, which connects thousands of telecommunication networks. In the scope of GIS, Internet is a powerful means facilitating the access, processing, and dissemination of geographical information and geographic knowledge. The progress of information technology has dramatically influenced the development of GIS technology. A series of faster computers and storing devices are continuously appearing and changing the way we deal with our complex problems. The recent development of wired and wireless data communication has made possible GIS technologies to evolve from mainframe and stand alone desktop GIS to distributed GIS . Presently, users can access and operate GIS applications from any location supporting web browsers. While the mainframe and stand alone desktop GIS are centralized systems based on platforms incorporating software packages and data, Distributed GIS are developed around an advanced networking technology, which can enable connecting a series of different systems and platforms. Distributed GIS refers to GIS programmes running on the Internet called Internet GIS or on wireless networking technologies called Mobile GIS. Recently, many organizations are experiencing more distributed services through geographically dispersed networks and web-based GIS to meet their specific requirements. Then, Internet GIS is the basic tool that permits developing an Enterprise GIS, which focuses on building a comprehensive infrastructure enabling to make a best way to take benefits of multiple companies’ resources .
Impact of GIS and Internet GIS on delivery of key land administration
Information Technology and geographic knowledge
The World Bank’s 1998 report on world development stated:” knowledge has become perhaps the most important factor determining the standard of living …… Today’s most technologically advanced economies are truly knowledge based”. Knowledge is generally built upon information extracted from data and has the characteristics to add values to this information. Geographic information as a specific information is obviously leading to build a knowledge dealing with spatial phenomena. The GIS technology has the ability to gather general and specific information about the real world and to deliver useful solutions for society problems. GIS involves various kinds of knowledge based on scientific rules, sophisticated materials, and specific values of land information to present appropriate solutions with respect to several objectives. This permits to decision makers to conceive new approaches of governing effectively land resources regarding the existing legislature and laws. New services are developed and new information and business activities are facilitated and improved.
GIS and Land Information Systems
The GIS has been positively influenced by the information technology progress and the geographic knowledge development. Several GIS applications have been developed dealing with many different data to enable spatial searching, overlay operations, spatial analysis and modeling. A kind of GIS based applications is Land Information Systems, which indicate every system producing spatially referenced information on land referring to properties and natural resources. LIS are combining human and technical resources, with a set of organizing procedures, to provide information in support of management activities . They are concerned with detailed information recorded at the local level so they may be mapped at large scales. They serve the decision-maker to develop and to up-grade the national trends for land management. They have the benefits to serve society on a long-term basis and on a long-term return on investment. Their ultimate objective is to become a key of land administration by considering both static and dynamic aspects of land . Land administration has in its downstream reliable mapping infrastructures, which come from cadastre and survey mapping, and in its upstream good management, which is an operational process of implementing land policies in comprehensive and sustainable ways .
Social and economical impacts of Internet GIS technologies
While GIS technologies have the aim to enhance processing, analysis, and diffusion of geographic information, Internet GIS focuses on sharing geographic knowledge built up of a potential networking telecommunications.
The Internet GIS solution creates an inter-departmental cooperation and an inter-local coordination and ensures an interoperable land information system. The availability of distributed land information permits to treat additional forms of social and cultural information. The more relevant information we process for a particular environment, the more reliability and social confidence we obtain. The reliable land administration data will improve land management, land ownership administration, land resources assessment, network infrastructure studies, and transportation activities. However, it is required to introduce the technology across different levels.
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