University of Hannover, Germany
An overview of the development of geographic information system in some of the leading municipalities of the Middle East Region
The use of geoinformation technologies is not new in the Middle East. These techniques are being used since the early stage of their development. The preconditions for their use are very favourable for that region. There are adequate financial resources in the national economies of the region. There exists also a good access to the sources of innovation in the high tech world of North America, Europe and Asia. And there exists a growing need for their application in an environment, where the rapid growth of population, the wish for the improvement of the standards of living and the local development of intellectual capacities is taking place.
Evolution of Geoinformation Technologies
The key components for the evolution of geoinformation technologies have been the new possibilities for geopositioning from satellites, the automation of aerial survey techniques, the introduction of satellite imaging and the acquisition, management and display of geodata by computer processing in form of geographic information systems. More recently there is a trend to interface the various technologies for more efficient use with the result, that a vast improvement of data acquisition, data management and data display of geodata has become possible with respect to accuracy and time requirements. The evolutions in the different fields have developed their theories in the 1960´s. They started with first attempts in 1970´s, reaching applicability in 1980´s and with widespread uses in 1990´s.
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