Home Articles Future of GPS, GALILEO and GLONASS: An overview

Future of GPS, GALILEO and GLONASS: An overview

Muhammed Sahin


Muhammed Sahin
Professor, Head of Surveying Techniques,
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Department of Geodesy & Photogrammetry,
Istanbul Technical University
Email:[email protected]

Reha M Alkan


Reha M Alkan
Associate professor,
ITU, Turkey
Email: [email protected]

Himmet Karaman


Himmet Karaman
Research Associate
ITU, Turkey
Email: [email protected]

Ergin Tari


Ergin Tari
Associate professor,
ITU, Turkey
Email: [email protected]
This article reviews satellite navigation systems: GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO as well as GPS modernisation which has been carried out for a few years

Satellite navigation technology is rapidly evolving. The modernisations in GPS, full deployments of GLONASS and GALILEO after 2008 will facilitate the development of new applications, and hence opening up of new markets. It is time to prepare for this new commodity: ubiquitous provision of reliable and accurate positioning and timing services has already started to transform our societies. This article provides an overview of satellite navigation systems – GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO as well as GPS modernisation which has been carried out for a few years.

Global positioning system (gps)
GPS is an all-weather, space-based navigation system developed by the US Department of Defence (DoD) to meet the military needs to determine their position, velocity and time in a common reference system, anywhere on or near the Earth. The system originated in 1973 and the first satellite was launched on February 22, 1978. It was initially developed for military purposes, but later on, the US government directed the DoD to promote its civilian use. The system has now 31 satellites in four orbiting planes as of September 11, 2005[https:// www.colorado.edu/ geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html, 2005], [https:// www.gpsworld.com, 2005][https://www.navcen.uscg.gov/Ftp/ gps/status.txt].

GPS has been extensively used for many applications for the last two decades. With the initiatives on development of some other satellite navigation system, such as GALILEO, the US has decided to modernize GPS. The modernisation of GPS will be explained in detail in the following paragraphs. Before this we need to explain the GALILEO system.