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Archaeological underground 3D visualization

Chaya Mitsuru (presenter),
Director, Simmon Corporation Co.,ltd,

Miyatsuka Yoshito
Manager, Miyatsuka Institute of Archaeology
1686-3 Yaeda, Isaka-cho, Yokkaichi city, Mie-Pref., 512-8064, Japan
Tel.: +81-593-66-1660 Fax: +81-593-66-1662
Email: [email protected]

Abstract
The success of the archaeological survey in field is mostly due to excaving. Considering the distribution of the object under ground has a great importance. Concretely, this is achieved by means of excavating test pit or a trench. Despite of this effort, there are still possibilities that the test pit did not hit the important area of the site. Having information of under ground before archaeological surveying can be extremely effective for archaeologists. The Ground Penetration Radar system (GPR) is one method for getting these data. The problem for archaeologists to use GPR is the difficulty of understanding and analyzing the data.

Placing the radar scanner lengthwise and breadth wise according to the condition of the underground ruin does measurement. The elevation of surface is measured which makes it possible to create 3D models from radar-scanned data. 3D visualization is done by using computer and it is still useful even it is done by easy and cheap software in some particular scale and type of ruin(such as ancient road).

Introduction
It is very important that archaeologists know the underground data before excavations. The excavations of archaeological sites are always started to excavate from no data, archaeologists must consider from the nothing about the archaeological sites to excavate.

Recently, Japanese archaeologists become to test the Geo (Underground) Radar system before excavations. Geo Radar system will not only give to archaeologists about the 2D data, like profiles under the ground, but also give about 3D data, if they will get many data.

This paper will show the Visualizations for the under ground 3D images for the archaeological sites.

Methods and Test

Testing Area
We tried to test at Honjo-baru archaeological site in Miyazaki pref., southern Kyushu Island. This test area is covered by many volcanic ashes (about 3-4m) from the Kirishima and Sakurajima volcanoes (Fig.-1), therefore, we cannot find the archaeological sites easily. Honjo-baru archaeological site belongs in 14-15th century, is the fortress site with ditches and clay walls that the

Figure 1 Test Area Figure 2 Measuring lines excavations before.

In 1998, the educational office of Miyazaki pref., found the ditches from the profiles of road construction. This point is considerable to the ridge of the Honjo-baru fortress site, the educational office of Miyazaki pref., ordered to test the Geo Radar system to be clear the limit of archaeological site.

3D surface model
We set the — measuring lines at parallel, and — lines at the closes the parallel lines to check the direction of ditches (Fig.-2).

At first, we measured the height of the surface each 5m in measuring lines. This data showed the 3D surface model of the test field (Fig.-3), and gives the slope data of each measuring lines.


Figure 3 3D surface model

Radar data
Radar row data is the 2D data of the resistance of the soil, is considerable by water content, the size of soil particle, and soil corrosion (Fig.-4). These resistances are showed by color bar code due to the strength. This color bar code are able to change and treat by the changing of resistance value.

Each data will show the close section of the under ground images.

In order to make 3D model, we collected the parallel data to Fig.-5.


Figure 4 Row Radar data


Figure 5 Treatment data


Figure 6 3D Visualization of ditch
Conclusion
Geo Radar data will give the unknown information to archaeologists, and they can forecast to the archaeological sites before excavations.

3D visual data will show more understandable images to consider the archaeological sites.