The Mid Term Review Mission of the World Bank has approved the enhancement of the Hydrological Information System with GIS data sets, to provide the spatial dimension to the point measurements of surface and ground water quantity and quality and hydrometeorology.
The basic infrastructure for GIS hardware and software is already being implemented under the Hydrology Project. The Surface Water Data Processing software (HYMOS) and the Ground Water Data Processing (GWDP) software proposed under Hydrology Project will have GIS functionality. The GWDP software will also have additional module for water balance and resource assessment, which call for appropriate spatial data sets. The SWDPS also has provision to process, compile and store spatial data on basin characteristics and location data on observation stations and hydraulic structures. Necessary computers and peripherals are being procured.
GIS strengthening approved after MTR assessment covers preparation of GIS data sets by GW departments in participating states, and provision of stand-alone computer hardware and GIS software and support training in Maharashtra, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh States. The GIS technology will enable relating point measurements to administrative and hydrologic units; generation of customized maps; querying the database and use in modeling applications.
This approach paper highlights the details regarding generation of GIS data sets under HP, and decisions requested from HLTG.
Objective and Scope
To generate GIS data sets on select themes for integration in the surface and ground water Data Centres in 8 participating states, and in the National Data centres.
The State Ground Water department will be the executing agency for this component in each participating State, supported by a Technical Committee with representatives from the State surface and ground water agencies, Central Ground Water Board, Central Water Commission and Geological Survey of India.
The State GWD will provide a copy of GIS data sets to the surface water agency for integration in the State Surface Water Data Centre.
The Central Water Commission and Central Ground Water Board will be responsible for the integration of GIS data sets from all 8 States into the National Surface and Ground water Data Centres.
The generation of GIS data sets will be outsourced to vendors through a competitive bidding procedure, independently by each participating State GWD. To ensure uniformity and consistency in data sets the standard methodology specified by the HP will be followed by the vendors.
The generation of digital spatial data sets covering about 2600 map sheets in 1:50000 scale over 8 participating states should be completed before end-2000, with subsequent integration in the Data Centres during the balance period of HP.
Selection of GIS Data Sets
The selection of minimum GIS data sets will be guided by the relevance and commonality to both surface and ground water component of HP. Surface water analysis requires a minimum set of thematic data on land use, soil, topography and drainage, while GW analysis will additionally require spatial data on geology, geomorphology, structures, lineaments and hydrogeomorphology. General supporting data cover settlements, transport network and administrative boundaries. This only constitutes a minimum spatial data set, considering the time and manpower constraints. For example data on irrigation command areas, canal network and other water use sectors such as industries though useful will be difficult to generate within the balance period of HP.
The suggested themes in 1:50000 scale are: land use/cover (including surface water), soil, geology, geomorphology, lineaments and structures (to be derived from satellite data), and drainage, settlements, contours and spot heights, and transportation network from the most current Survey of India topographic maps. It is envisaged that the minimum data set will be augmented by additional spatial data sets in course of time.
Inventory of Existing Spatial Data Sets and Fresh Generation Requirements
The extent of fresh data generation requirements will be assessed based on the inventory of existing data sets in map and digital format, generated under national and State programmes.
The existing data sets will be reviewed under a set of standard criteria (level of thematic classification, mapping and thematic accuracy, age of data, and availability) for acceptance in HP. Additional generation of data sets (thematic mapping and digitization, digitization of existing maps and format conversion of existing digital data sets) will be defined for each state. The preparation of these data sets will be as per the standard methodology proposed by HP, to ensure consistency and uniformity amongst the participating States.
Standard Methodology for Generating Data Sets
The methodology will cover i) fresh thematic data generation, ii) digital conversion of fresh and existing thematic maps and select details from SOI maps, and iii) format conversion of existing digital data set. A similar procedure has been successfully followed in a large number of national programmes to produce consistent data sets. The methodology manual will include:
- Directory of spatial data sets, covering selected themes, input data, output data, generation methodology and data conversion requirements.
- GIS data base organization – primary layers, scale of data, map projection, location references, template coverage of 8 states with 15 min* 15 min interval in geographic coordinates, mapping/thematic/digitzation accuracy, registration accuracy between layers, mosaicing of sheets within and across the States, and data coding standards
- Themewise chapters – classification scheme, input data specifications, methodology in flow chart, internal QC and external QA, validation criteria for delivered product, specifications of output data products.
- Format of report for each digital map- quality audit statement(sheet code, generation date, mapping /thematic /digitization accuracy); brief description of input data, generation procedure, output products; contact address for future interaction
Procedure for Generating Data Sets
The Ground Water department of each participating State will be responsible for generating data sets within the State. The data sets will be produced through outsourcing to vendors through a competitive bidding procedure.
A State level Technical Committee consisting of representatives from the State Surface and ground water agencies, Central Water Commission and Central Ground Water Board will support the State GWD. It is recommended to include the Geological Survey of India (GSI) for i) technical inputs on geology related themes and ii) to facilitate procurement of data sets from the National Geoscientific Data Centre developed under GSI-BRGM Project. The technical committee will provide guidance and support on defining fresh spatial data generation, bid evaluation, external independent quality audit of data products and integration of spatial data sets into the State Surface and Ground Water Data Centres.
The HLTG will oversee all the generic aspects such as selection of minimum GIS data sets, standard methodology to be followed, bidding procedure including vendor qualification by appropriate weighting, and integration of GIS data sets into the State and National Data Centres.
Preparation of Bid Document
The generic bid document will be prepared by the Consultants, and approved by HLTG for adoption by the State GWDs. The bid document will specify data generation requirements, methodology to be followed, and qualification of vendors as part of evaluation procedure. Particularly important is the qualification of vendors by assigning weights to financial strength (annual turnover) to undertake large job, years of experience in the mapping and digitization activity, experience in mutitheme mapping in the same region, adequate computer hardware and software, supporting facilities such as soil lab, trained manpower (academically qualified, previous experience in thematic mapping) and certification of successful completion of past work. Selection of qualified vendors by weighting is essential in view of past experience where unqualified vendors were selected based on lowest quotation, and work was not completed successfully.
Bids will be invited for ‘minimum lot’ of data sets (perhaps regional coverage of all themes which is cost effective from field visit angle, and ensures internal consistency between themes and theme matching across map sheets). The proposed internal QC procedure (at different stages of data set preparation) needs to be detailed by the bidder.
Joint venture between bidding companies (with the responsibilities of each agency to be listed) would be encouraged so that the whole State is covered by one such group. The bid would include penalty clauses for delayed delivery and poor map quality.
Bid Evaluation and Issue of Order
The responses received from vendors will be evaluated as per the weighting procedure defined in the bid document, and the successful bidder identified for issue of order.
External Quality Audit and Acceptance of data sets from vendor
In addition to the internal QC of the selected vendor generating the dataset an independent quality audit on sample basis by State GWD, supported by the Consultant, is proposed at specific stages of dataset generation. The Consultant will develop necessary procedural mechanism. The products delivered by the contract agency will be accepted by the State GWD as per the criteria defined in the bid document.
Integration of Spatial Data Sets in the Data Centres
The State GWD will be responsible for the integration of spatial data sets in the State Ground Water Data Centre, and for providing a copy of the data sets to the State surface water agency, which in turn will be responsible for integration in the State Surface Water Data Centre.
The State GWDs will also provide a copy of data sets to the Central Water Commission and Central Ground Water Board, for integration in the respective National Data Centres.
Staff and Training
Additional staff are not identified for this activity, which will be outsourced. Training required for selected existing staff for integration of spatial data sets in the Data Centres will be included in the GIS training planned under the over-all training programme of HP. A Core Team of about 6 members need to be identified in each State ground and surface water agencies, and in CWC and CGWB, who could be provided necessary training.
Decisions requested from HLTG
Approval to be provided for:
- Proposed approach to GIS data set generation, covering selection of minimum spatial data sets, acceptance mechanism for existing products and definition of fresh product requirements, executing agency, bidding procedure, external Quality Audit, acceptance and integration of spatial data sets in the Data Centres.
- Preparation of standard methodology manual on data generation and bid document by the Consultant
- State GWDs to initiate action on procurement of GIS data sets
- Constitution of State level Technical Committee to support State GWD in defining fresh spatial data generation, bid evaluation, external independent quality audit of data products and integration of spatial data sets into the State Surface and Ground Water Data Centres.
- Inclusion of training modules on GIS for selected staff in State surface and ground water agencies, and in CWC and CGWB.