Mr. Amit.Kumar Gupta
Junior Research Fellow
Mr. Gunin Gogoi
Junior Research Fellow
Department of Geography, Faculty of Science
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara
Rapid urban development and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas, than in the city centre. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, Remote Sensing and GIS is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatio-temporal data. The present study highlights a coordinated significance of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in detecting land use changes that have been experienced in last thirty years in Vadodra and its surrounding areas.
Urban sprawl may be defined as the scattering of new development on isolated tracts, separated from other areas by vacant land (Ottensmann, 1977). It is also often described as leapfrog development (Gordon and Richardson, 1977) as observed in all the major cities across the world. It is expected that by the years 2001 India will loose about 10 Million Hectares of prime agricultural land in the form of urban sprawls. The cities are growing in all directions resulting into changes in urban land use, reflected on the border or peripheral rural areas as compared to that of the city centre. In the midst of urban and industrial expansion, there is increasing pressure on important resources predominantly in the metropolitan cities. Urban spread out has been blamed for disorganized use of land resources and energy and large scale intrusion onto the agricultural lands. As the cities enlarge, agricultural land and habitats like forest etc. are transformed into land for housing, roads, industry etc.
The result is increase in the built up area and related changes in the urban land use patterns, causing loss of productive agricultural lands, forest cover, other forms of greenery, loss in surface water bodies, depletion in ground water aquifers and increasing levels of air and water pollution; causing environmental problems. Thus the problem of expanding of city centers is complex and complicated Land use change is the end result of numerous interacting factors arising from different levels of associations of human-environment systems, which differs in time and space. Driving forces can be slow with long turnover times, which decide the boundaries of sustainability. Changes are generally driven by a combination of factors that work progressively and factors that happen irregularly. Thus it is necessary to measure and monitor land use changes over space and time for sustainability. The accessibility of high resolution data has been helpful for mapping spatial features, providing dependable, suitable, and precise data. GIS provides diverse methods to create spatial planning scenario for decision making.
Figure.1 The Study Area
The study area
Vadodara is located in the most developed region of the state of Gujarat, popularly known as “Golden Corridor”. Situated in the Central Gujarat, it extends between 21° and 23° north latitudes and 73° and 74° 10? east longitude over and area of 714 sq.kmThe region has undergone dramatic changes in the land use pattern due to very rapid industrialization. The capital of former princely state with slow pace of life and ordinary scale development, is now subjected to rapid industrialization and urbanization (Fig.1)
After the formation of Gujarat state in 1960; the city experienced real boom in industrialization. Massive multi core national projects like Koyali refinery, Indian Petro Chemicals Ltd., Gujarat State Fertilizer Plant were set up. During 1980’s the city has seen the development of specified industrial estates like Makarpura, Sardar Estate & Nandesri developed by Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation with in the immediate urban area and industrial area of Savli, Vaghodia and Por on the outskirts of the present Urban limits of Vadodara. Expanding private sector also provided additional jobs to thousands of white and blue collared workers. This has helped in building a wide and highly diversified modern industrial base. The post libralisation period have seen spurt in the growth and establishment of global giants around the Vadodara Urban area like General Motors (Halol), Larson & Tubro (Nandesri), GE Plastic (Bajwa) etc.
The physical growth of city is induced by development of residential and industrial activity around the city from time to time. Industrial and commercial activities have developed along the major arterial roads running North-South and East-West of Vadodara city. Initially, the development took place along the four axis of Mandvi, later spread outwards West and North Western direction. Consequently, there was increase in the administrative limits from time to time. In 1921, the city municipal area was 22.68 Sq.Km. By 1964 the area increased to 72.44 Sq.Km, which increase to 97.22 sq.km. in 1973 to 108.22 sq.km in 1975 till 1996.. The city is at present subdivided into 10 administrative wards With the establishment Vadodara Urban Development Authority (VUDA) on 1st February, 1978, city has its own developmental agency. The VUDA Covers 714 Sq.Kms area including Baroda Municipal Corporation and area of Vadodara, Padra, Vaghodia Taluka covering 104 villages.
|Area within Vadodara Municipal Limits(VMC)||108.00|
|Area of Villages included in VUDA(Excluding VMC)||606.56|
Table 1 Area of VUDA and VMC
Methodology and Data Set
Application of Remote Sensing technology have been identified and used as an important tool to monitor land use and surface changes. Satellite remote sensing collects multi-spectral, multi-resolution, multi-temporal data providing valuable information for understanding and monitoring the process of urban land cover changes. As it is in the digital format, it can be brought into GIS , to provide a suitable platform for data analysis, update and retrieval. Land use can be captured both in terms of geographic location and absolute area. The growth profile obtained helps in formulation of development policies. (Patkar.V.N & Sampathkumar. D)
In the present study, LAND SAT- 5 TM (1990) & LANDSAT-7 ETM +(2001) data of one time period i.e. for the month of November is used for detecting the characteristics of land use change. ERDAS imagine 8.7 digital image processing soft ware is used for supervised classification. Land use was categorized into 8 types based on signature of the images. Further, ARC info 8.3 is used to prepare thematic maps and data base (.Fig.2)
|Satellite||?Sensitivity (μm)||?Ground resolution (m)||?Swath (Km)|
|LAND SAT-5 (Sensor-TM)||
|LAND SAT-7 (Sensor-ETM+)||Above TM bands
|30 (60 m in thermal band)
Table 2. Sensor Used on Landsat-5 to 7 Missions
Analysis and Results
The classification accuracy was analysed to be for land sat-5 TM 87.50% and land sat -7 ETM+ 84.33% The Kappa coefficient, which measures the reliability of the result, were analysed to be 0.857for 1and sat 5 TM and 0.8214 for land sat-7 ETM+.
From (table 3 )it can be depicted that there is increase in the agricultural area by 1.49% may be due to canal net work introduced while the fallow land have decreased by 12.95%and open land have also decreased by 1.48% at the same time the built up land dense and less dense have both increased . This may be due to the conversion of fallow land into other uses. New institutes and expansion of settlements and industrial plots have been responsible for such changes. Built up area is increasing and expanding towards west, south and NW.
Transport routes of NH and Express highway in NW, industrial estates may have resulted in each change. Population pressure is experienced, adding to increased built up area. The infrastructure facility like road etc. all adds up to built up area. VUDA suffers from such conflicting uses of conversion of peri agricultural land i.e. fallow land is being converted into other uses. Direction of change and levels of changes can be thus detected from satellite data. The drivers of such changes needs to be further investigated for planning purpose. In near future again changes will be witnessed with implementation of SEZ in the area.
|Dense Built-up Land||18||20||16||88.89%||80.00%|
|Less dense built-up Land||27||20||18||66.67%||90.00%|
Table3. Land use statistics in the study area (1990- 2001). ACCURACY ASSESSMENT FOR LANDSAT-5 TM 1990
Overall Classification Accuracy = 87.50%
Overall Kappa Statistics = 0.8571
|Dense Built-up Land||20||20||19||95.00%||95.00%|
|Less dense built-up Land||17||20||16||94.12%||80.00%|
ACCURACY ASSESSMENT FOR LANDSAT-7 ETM + 2001
Overall Classification Accuracy = 84.38%
Overall Kappa Statistics = 0.8214
In the course of urban spread, valuable land is being converted for building, industry, transport facilities etc. Land being inadequate, government may need to develop policies to maintain it for intensive cropping and encourage peri-urban agriculture. An absence of any land use planning may lead to land degradation. Un-planned decisions may result into misery for large segment of the local population and destruction of valuable eco-system. Techniques for the planning and management of land resources specifically integrated and holistic will check long term quality of the land for human use, their prevention or resolution of social conflicts related to land use, and the conversion of ecosystem.
Thus it is, essential to review the conventional planning methods and introduce innovative measures like geo- referencing technologies in this regard.
We would like to express our gratitude to Department Of Science and Technology, Government of India (SRS4/ES 21/ Baroda Window/ P6) SSS for granting financial aid. We also express due thanks to Prof.L.S.Chamyal, for his constant encouragement.
- Adams.D(1994): Urban Planning and the Development Process, London, UCL Press.
- Joseph George (2005): Fundamentals of Remote Sensing, University Press (India) Private Ltd. Hyderabad.
- Kang -tsung Chang (2002): Geographic Information Systems, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
- K. Nagamani and S.Ramachandran, Land use/land cover in Pondicherry using Remote sensing and GIS, Institute for Ocean Management , Anna University, 3rd International conference on Environment and Health, Channai, India, 15-17, Dec.2003.
- Land Evaluation for sustainable Land Management. Klaas Jan Beek, Kees de Bie and Paul Driessen, International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Science(ITC).
- Lambin.Eric.F,Geist.Helmut J and Lepers Erika (2003): “Dynamics of Land Use and Land Cover Changes In Tropical Regions”: Annual Reviews Environment Resources
- Lilesand.T and Kiefer.R. (2002): Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation , John Wiley & Sons, Inc.NewYork
- Planning for sustainable use of land resources, towards a new approach. FAO LAND AND WATER BULLETIN 2.
- Patkar,V.N and Sampathkumar.D.(1999): A facelift to Mumbai: Courtesy GIS, [email protected],vol3 No.1 pp25-34
- Pathan.S.K.et al (1991):Urban Land Use mapping-A case study of Ahmedabad, Photonirvachik Journal Of Indian Society Of Remote Sensing,vol.19, No.2,pp95-112
- T.M. Lillesand and R.W.Keifer (2002): Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley and Sons.