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Address Data and Conditional Access System (CAS) for Internal Security, Emergency Response – A Geographic Information System Approach

Siva Ram Sistla
Manager- GIS, SENES Consultants India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
Specialists in Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Sciences

 

Introduction
Timely, accurate information easily accessed and capable of being shared across state, and local political jurisdictions is fundamental to the decision-making capability of those tasked with protecting life and property. But without the real-time ability to quickly map locations, visualize activity patterns, and understand the multilayered geographic context of emergency situations, management and response are severely hampered.

The geospatial information such as address data can provide decision-makers the data they need to confidently confront a wide variety of threats including natural disasters, terrorist attacks, sabotage and other similar crises.

However, the current implementation of technology, across all the state, and local agencies and jurisdictions necessary to fully coordinate an effective response, is seriously lacking in specific areas.

Technologies have brought changes in the living conditions of human beings as well as to internal security and threats to public life.

As the concept of internal security and critical infrastructure protection becomes Infused into the work-a-day pattern of government and everyday life of our citizens, decision makers will greatly profit from the crisis management “edge” that GIS provides.

The address data of individuals and usage of Conditional access system (CAS) for cable network will bring in results for various communities. Emergency management leaders and others should understand and implement the policy changes necessary to fully realize this technology’s capability, and make the management decisions necessary to implement national address data on a city and statewide basis.

Background
As never before, and in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks like “ December 13 -terrorist attack on Parliament” “an attack on the highest institution of the largest democracy in the world, Mumbai blasts. Illegal passport rackets, Bank defaulters, loan defaulters, illegal occupants & migrants, income tax violators, insurance defaulters etc.

It has become clear that in emergency situations of whatever origin, is dependent on rapid access to and application of many types of current, accurate geospatial Information.

  • Facilities and operations susceptible to attack;
  • Critical infrastructure, including telecommunications; energy systems; hazardous materials storage; Banking and finance; water supply systems; transportation systems; emergency care facilities; computing systems; government facilities;
  • Accurate employment data tied to specific locations; and
  • Detailed and current “framework” data, including accurate aerial imagery, Transportation, elevation, political boundaries, property ownership, Powerful geographic information systems are now available that quickly render one to several layers of digital geospatial data into map-like products.

As India has completed its 14 th Population Enumeration and the data generated by the Census of India 2001 will provide benchmark statistics.

Data mining of census data (‘Where and How people live?) along with the nation wise/state/city wise spatial data, such as street level details, property hold and tagging the address data can be used for assessing the impact of the changing human behavior pattern (from cable network), living conditions, and area wise developmental programs and identify areas which confront a wide variety of threats including natural disasters, terrorist attacks, sabotage and other similar crises.

Conditional access system (CAS) and Address data:
Applications of Geographical information system (GIS) can be used for laying cables and monitoring of distribution network. This not only reduces wastage of cables, but also helps in Cable Network layout and planning, zoning of the areas to minimize the distribution drop and approachability.

The address data can provide information to the following:

For internal security:

  1. Passport verification
  2. Tenants verification (pre and post residing status)
  3. To keep eye on illegal migrates and their locations
  4. Understanding the sensitive areas based on community behavior and safe guarding the religious sentiments
  5. For intelligence and legal officers

For local governing bodies

  1. Municipal and local administration
  2. Police
  3. Income tax
  4. Solid waste management

For social economic studies:

  1. Behavioral pattern of the consumers
  2. Community development and social adaptability
  3. Buying pattern index and analysis

For others

  1. Banks
  2. Financial institutes
  3. Postal
  4. Courier
  5. Prospects in consumer durable

Base level details such as address and location of customer can be gained for area wise cable operators, Schematic (or by aid of aerial photography) representation of residential areas locations along with ward information details from the local governing bodies and other communities, Tagging statically details of the number of viewers per house or in sets-like wise tenants and house owners, each individual is locationally represented with neighboring areas.

Integration of cable TV costumer’s details along with censes data will provide base address data of the number of individuals residing in particular area.

As the voters lists contains each household details, such as number of persons residing, name, age, location and address.

Geocoding is the process of matching a particular address with a geographic location. This is done through matching records in two databases, one containing a list of addresses, the other containing information about a street network. The geocoding tool will match a given address with its unique position within the street network. Since the street network will already have been located in geographic space with reference to some coordinate system (usually latitude and longitude), assigning a given address on the street network also has the effect of locating that address in geographic space as well

Considering India position on internal security, the address data will help systems to facilitate near-real time performance of a wide range of relevant geospatial analyses. These systems can be used to access and process digital geospatial data virtually anywhere because the data can be instantly transmitted from wherever it’s maintained and stored to any place where it’s needed

Conclusions
Geographic information technologies, combined with appropriate sets (address data sets,street level details, etc) of Geospatial information, create an invaluable tool for the handling, display, and analysis of information involved in every aspect of critical infrastructure security.

Spatial address data will benefit to intelligence, law enforcement, and other national security-related elements, as well as to local communities, in dealing with terrorism and other major threats to public safety and welfare.