Senior Planner, USAID Indonesia Coastal Resources Management Project,
Director, USAID Indonesia Coastal Resources Management Project
The CRMP project took basic GIS tools and information, and adapted these to different local contexts to provide GIS-based coastal and watershed resources atlases that have supported the objective of improved coastal, watershed and marine resources management
Over the past 10 years, the Indonesia Coastal Resources Management Project (CRMP) stands as one of the longest, continuously running programs in the portfolio of the Indonesia Mission of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Supported in its first phase by the University of Rhode Island in the United States, the program is now implemented by the International Resources Group based in Washington, D.C. The CRMP works at village, district, provincial and national levels with government, private sector partners, international donors and international and local non-governmental partners in the provinces of East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi and Papua, and with the central government located in Jakarta. In 1999, with the adoption of Laws 22/1999 and 25/1999 on regional autonomy and regional fiscal balance, Indonesia moved from being one of the most centralized countries in the world to one of the most decentralized. Almost overnight, responsibility for natural resources management, including coastal and marine resources, was transferred to regional governments. The CRMP is widely recognized as having directly contributed to building a national framework for improved decentralized management of watershed, coastal and marine resources through pilots, research, capacity development, and institutional and legal reform. The project took basic GIS tools and information, and adapted these to different local contexts to provide GIS-based coastal and watershed resources atlases that have supported the objective of improved coastal, watershed and marine resources management in Indonesia. The different approaches used are illustrative of how GIS can be used without huge expenditures to provide stakeholders with a commonly agreed upon starting point for making decisions on natural resources utilization, conservations and management.
CRMP GIS-Based Atlas Programme: Adaptation of Approaches
The USAID CRMP was designed to develop best practices models that can be adopted by local partners, whether government, private sector or non-government organizations, to support decentralized management of coastal and watershed resources. Development of a series of GIS-based coastal and watershed resources atlases were developed for the coastal area of Lampung Province in Sumatra, the Manado-Minahasa-Bitung region in North Sulawesi Province and Bintuni Bay in Papua Province. The development of these atlases was one of the main best practices demonstrated through the CRMP program. Each regional atlas was approached using participatory principles but the exact process in each of three locations was adapted to the local context.
Lampung Province Coastal Resources Atlas (South Sumatra, Indonesia)
The Lampung Coastal Resources Atlas was the first atlas model supported by CRMP. Starting with meetings with local government, local NGOs and community stakeholders, CRMP staff began to facilitate a process through which the location and condition of coastal resources was discussed, agreed upon and mapped onto base maps created by the project. In addition to the location and condition of resources, the atlas also located stressors to these resources such as upstream industry, agriculture, and other activities that resulted in downstream pollution, sedimentation, fresh water flow alterations, etc. Several aspects of the Lampung atlas process are notable.
While the CRMP staff started with meetings with villagers, NGOs, university staff and other stakeholders, the primary partner for development of the atlas was provincial government. The actual GIS work needed to create the Lampung Atlas was done by CRMP staff. However, training was provided to local stakeholders in how to update the features embedded in the atlas database. While the original files could not be changed, embedded features could be updated and saved as new files. Further, while the atlas was distributed to communities, NGOs and other stakeholders, the primary user was provincial government.