The Chinese land resources department integrates 2D and 3D GIS for project clearance, security monitoring and mine resource exploration and audit
Chongqing Municipal Bureau of Land Resources Department used to maintain paper records for mining management. The paper records made it difficult for the government to have clarity on the ownership of mine reserves and mining taxes. Moreover, since this data was locked up in different departments, it became difficult to process the data when the government wanted integrated data for a statistical purpose. Lot of precious time was wasted during government audits of mineral projects and in identifying the zones which are prone to geological disasters or have cross-border issues.
In order to resolve these issues, Chongqing chose to build a mine supervision and management information system. After completing verification of mine rights in 2009, the municipality began developing the system.
2D GIS leading the path
Handmade paper documents were converted into electronic data and geographic and business databases were built. To solve the data sharing problem between different departments, several technologies were used. SuperMap SDX+ database engine enabled the system to store spatial data in database like SQL server, Oracle, etc. Multi-source aggregation technology enabled access to different data types and data sources. The data was then exposed as Web service within SOA architecture and was integrated with the basic data management platform.
With the help of this platform, the staff was able to overlay various types of data on “one map” and continue with their day-to-day functions. However, the municipality still faced two major problems. The latest mineral reserves and the archives of the reserves were difficult to identify. Also, a lot of time was consumed in identifying projects with cross-border issues. To solve these problems, a series of query and analysis functions were added into the system. By defining a standard data structure, operations personnel were able to update the reserve data dynamically with mobile devices. Hence, they were able to perform current and historical query functions of the reserves.
3D GIS adds unimaginable possibilities
Data has always been an issue in 3D GIS. 3D data needs time and money to develop. Usually, 3D GIS only provides the viewing function while query and analysis functions are difficult to realise. SuperMap 3D GIS provided an intuitive way to interpret the whole framework of the mine. Based on the 3D view of the mine, effective planning and device monitoring was done. Device status and information are queried in the 3D scene. The staff could precisely locate in case of a gas alarm. The system also integrated video monitoring device, and the real-time video could be displayed to monitor the mine. An emergency handling module was also added. The emergency plan could be carried out in the 3D scene through simulation.
The classification of different mining features in coal mining areas could be visualised in 3D scene. Through comparative analysis, drilldown analysis, regional analysis based on mining technology, unexploited coal areas could be calculated. The efficiency of mine exploring improved significantly.
The mine supervision and management system came into operation in 2011. The time needed for project approval, which is the main work in Chongqing Municipal Bureau of Land Resources Department, was greatly reduced with this system. By setting the rules that a project should not be in no-take zone, cross-border zone and geological disaster zone, the unqualified projects could be detected automatically, eliminating hidden dangers.
The economic benefit of resource utilisation was huge. Recovery percentage of coal mines improved by 2-3%. The annual producing reserves of Chongqing are 2,600,000 tonnes. So 52,000-75,000 tons of mine could be recycled. It brought 26 million RMB ($ 4.2 million) revenues to the district in 2011.
The income from taxes increased. With supervision and monitoring functions of the reserves, as well as day-to-day electronic monitoring of the output of the mines and mineral enterprises, the under reporting of production of mineral resources is avoided. The annual output of the coal in Chongqing is 1.5 million tonnes. A 10% rise in the production was inspected by the system and tax incomes increased by 15 million RMB ($2.4 million dollar).
In addition, the efficiency of the mining administration department improved while the costs reduced. It is estimated that about 500,000 RMB ($80,000) was saved in 2011. The project won GIS Excellent Engineering Gold project award in China in 2011.